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“Umbra and Penumbra. A solar eclipse, with the penumbra, d, c, and the umbra or dark shadow is seen here. When the Moon is at its greatest distance from the Earth, its shadow m o, sometimes terminates, before it reaches the Earth, and then an observer standing directly under the point o, will see the outer edge of the Sun, forming a bright ring around the circumference of the Moon, thus forming an annular eclipse.” —Comstock, 1850




J. L. Comstock A System of Natural Philosophy: Principles of Mechanics (: Pratt, Woodford, and Company, 1850) 336


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