Vertical Circle Goniometer

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The goniometer is an instrument for measuring the angles of crystals. Nicolaus Stena in 1669 determined the interfacial angles of quartz crystals by cutting sections perpendicular to the edges, he plane angles of the sections being then the angles between faces which are perpendicular to the sections.


Encyclopaedia Britannica (New York: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, 1910) 12:234


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