Refraction, water

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“Suppose the rod a, to be set with one half of its length below the surface of the water and the other half above it. The eye being placed in an oblique direction will see the lower end apparently at the point o, while the real termination of the rod would be at n; the refraction will therefore make the rod appear shorter by the distance from o to n, or one-fourth shorter than the part below the water really is.” -Comstock 1850


J. L. Comstock A System of Natural Philosophy: Principles of Mechanics (: Pratt, Woodford, and Company, 1850) 214


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