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“Over the upper end of a cylindrical receiver, tie tightly a wet bladder or sheet of writing paper and allow it to dry. Then exhaust the air. The bladder will be forced inward, bursting with a loud noise. Replace the bladder with a thin sheet of india-rubber. Exhaust the air. The rubber sheet will be pressed inward, and nearly cover the inner surface of the receiver.” -Avery 1895


Elroy M. Avery School Physics (New York: Sheldon and Company, 1895) 181


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