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The digestive system. This figure represents the whole tract of the intestinal canal, not exactly in its natural position, but spread out so as to show the relative proportions; f, the esophagus; g, cardia; h, pylorus; i, i, the duodenum, about twelve fingers; breadth in length; k, hepatic duct; l, gall bladder; m, cystic duct; n, ductus communis, formed by the union of both; o, the opening of this duct into the duodenum; p, pancreatic duct; q, its opening into the duodenum; r, jejunum; s, ilium; these constitute the small intestines, and are about 26 feet in length, or five times the length of the body; t, termination of ilium in the coecum; , u, superior fold of valve of colon; v, inferior do. ; w, coecum; x, vermiform process; y, y, colon; z, rectum. The coecum, colon, and rectum, form the large intestines, and are about 6 feet in length; the coecum being about 4 inches long, and the same in diameter. The arrows show the direction which the food takes in digestion.


Lee, Charles A. Human Physiology for the Use of Elementary Schools, 11th ed. (Buffalo: J. C. Derby & Co., 1847) 278


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