"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized by the lens L, whose principal focus (i.e., for parallel rays) is in the center of the flame, while the remainder is intercepted and made parallel by the paraboloid a, and thus the double agents in Fresnel's design are dispensed with. The rays of the posterior hemisphere are reflected by the spherical mirror b back again through the foxus, whence passing onwards one portion of them falls on the lens and the rest on the paraboloid, so as finally to emerge in union with and parallel to the front rays." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadioptric Holophote

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized…

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized by the lens L, whose principal focus (i.e., for parallel rays) is in the center of the flame, while the remainder is intercepted and made parallel by the paraboloid a, and thus the double agents in Fresnel's design are dispensed with. The rays of the posterior hemisphere are reflected by the spherical mirror b back again through the foxus, whence passing onwards one portion of them falls on the lens and the rest on the paraboloid, so as finally to emerge in union with and parallel to the front rays." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Catadioptric Holophote

"Catadioptric Holophote.—Part of the anterior hemisphere of rays is intercepted and at once parallelized…

"Fixed Conensing Light for a Single Sector, 1850.—The holophote Light pLp throws its whole light on straight condensing prisms c, each of which distributes the rays over the required sector." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Light

"Fixed Conensing Light for a Single Sector, 1850.—The holophote Light pLp throws its whole light…

"Perfect Form of Dioptric Holophote for an Oil Flame.—By combining the back prisms ga, hc just described with a semi-holophote abc subtending 180 degrees and a portion of the dioptric spherical mirror ijk, no light is lost on the burner, and all the rays are parallelized, so that this apparatus, being all of glass, is both geometrically and physically perfect." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Dioptric Holophote

"Perfect Form of Dioptric Holophote for an Oil Flame.—By combining the back prisms ga, hc just…

"Holophotal Catadioptric Apparatus Revolving round a Central Flame." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Holophotal Catadioptric

"Holophotal Catadioptric Apparatus Revolving round a Central Flame." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…