This science ClipArt gallery offers 83 images of lab experiments and discoveries reaffirming principles and concepts in chemistry.

A liquid agitator. Liquid agitators are used with water that has small particles of a substance suspended within. The agitator makes said particles clump and settle faster than the individual particles would have on their own.

Liquid Agitator

A liquid agitator. Liquid agitators are used with water that has small particles of a substance suspended…

"Ammonia is a colorless gas with a peculiar odor, lighter than air, and exceedingly soluble in water...The great solubility of this gas is strikingly shown by the 'ammonia fountain.' A flask is filled with dry ammonia, and incerted over water. As soon as the [restraining] clip (not shown in picture) is removed from the ruber tubing, the water rushes in as the gas rapidly dissolves." -Brownlee 1907

Ammonia Fountain

"Ammonia is a colorless gas with a peculiar odor, lighter than air, and exceedingly soluble in water...The…

"States that: A body when immersed in a fluid loses exactly as much of its weight as is equal to the weight of the dluid it displaces; or: A fluid sustains as mch of the weight of a body immersed in it as is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Archimedes Principle

"States that: A body when immersed in a fluid loses exactly as much of its weight as is equal to the…

"From one end of a scale-beam, suspend a cylindrical metal bucket, b, with a solid cylinder, a, that fits accurately into it hanging below. Conterpoise with weights (shot or sand) in the opposite scale-pan. Immerse a in water, and the counterpoise will descend, as if a had lost some of its weight. Carefully fill b with water. It will hold exactly the quantity displaced by a. Equilibrium will be restored." -Avery 1895

Archimedies Principle

"From one end of a scale-beam, suspend a cylindrical metal bucket, b, with a solid cylinder, a, that…

"It is evident that, when a solid is immersed in a fluid, it will displace exactly its own volume of the fluid. Immerse a solid cube one centimeter on each edge in water, so that its upper face shall be level and one centimeter below the surface of the liquid, as shown. The lateral pressures upon any two opposite vertical surfaces of the cube, as a and b, are clearly equal and opposite." -Avery 1895

Archimedies Principle

"It is evident that, when a solid is immersed in a fluid, it will displace exactly its own volume of…

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice to be opened or closed by the valve b, as the piston a is moved up or down in its barrel. The valve being fastened by a hinge on the upper side, on pushing the piston down, it will open by the pressure of the air against it, and the air will make its escape. But when the piston is at the bottom of the barrel, on attempting to raise it again, towards the top, the valve is closed by the force of the external air acting upon it. If, therefore, the piston be drawn up in this state, it must be against the pressure of the atmosphere, the whole weight of which, to an extent equal to the diameter of the piston, must be lifted, while there will remain a vacuum or void space below it in the tube. if the piston be only three inches in diameter, it will require the full strength of a man to draw it to the top of the barrel, and when raised, if suddenly let go, it will be forced back again by the weight of the air, and will stright the bottom with great violence." —Comstock, 1850

Atmospheric Pressure

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice…

"The degree to which the air has been exhausted from a closed vessel in which there is a partial vacuum is measured by the height to which a mercurial column in a vertical tube, whose top is connected to the vessel, will rise under the pressure of the atmosphere." —Hallock 1905

Barometer Measuring Pressure of a Partially Evacuated Vessel

"The degree to which the air has been exhausted from a closed vessel in which there is a partial vacuum…

A bucking board upon which ore is pulverized into manageable pieces with a muller, which is like a hammer. These pieces can then be used in experiments.

Bucking Board

A bucking board upon which ore is pulverized into manageable pieces with a muller, which is like a hammer.…

"...gas lighted above an iron gauze (a, Fig. 11) does not catch fire below the gauze because the heat of the flame is conducted away by the iron." -Brownlee 1907

Bunsen Burner

"...gas lighted above an iron gauze (a, Fig. 11) does not catch fire below the gauze because the heat…

"b is a glass tube in water and c is a glass tube in mercury. The surface of the water in the tube b is concave, while the surface of the mercury in the tube c is convex." — Hallock, 1905

Capillary Attraction

"b is a glass tube in water and c is a glass tube in mercury. The surface of the water in the tube b…

An older version of a centrifuge. Used to separate dense substances from less dense substances so they can be used for experiments.

Centrifuge

An older version of a centrifuge. Used to separate dense substances from less dense substances so they…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel (End Section)

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

Diagrammatic representation of bleaching.

Diagrammatic Representation of Chlorine Bleaching

Diagrammatic representation of bleaching.

The first image is of clamps used in chemistry labs to hold test tubes and other apparatuses. The second image is of a stand that one would place small samples or liquids in order to measure them with greater accuracy.

Lab Clamps

The first image is of clamps used in chemistry labs to hold test tubes and other apparatuses. The second…

"Suppose our volume of hydrogen to unite with the volume of chlorine; if one particle of hydrogen combines with one particle of chlorine, it is evident that we should have four pairs; that is four particles of hydrogen chloride. These four particles of hydrogen chloride would occupy the same volume as four particles of hydrogen, or of chlorine, since dqual numbers of particles of gases occupy equal spaces. We should then expect one volume of hydrogen chloride to be formed." -Brownlee 1907

Combinational Volume

"Suppose our volume of hydrogen to unite with the volume of chlorine; if one particle of hydrogen combines…

"When one volume of hydrogen actually unites with one volume of chlorine, two volumes and not one volume of hydrogen chloride result. the volume of the acid is twice that of the hydrogen. Each of these two volumes must, according to Avagadro's hypothesis, contain four particles of the acid, or eight in all, so that in the eight particles of the acid there must be eight particles of hydrogen and eight particles of chlorine." -Brownlee 1907

Combinational Volume

"When one volume of hydrogen actually unites with one volume of chlorine, two volumes and not one volume…

A hand-generated rock crusher. Generally used to reduce rock to grainy substance in order to analyze it with greater accuracy.

Rock Crusher

A hand-generated rock crusher. Generally used to reduce rock to grainy substance in order to analyze…

"Suppose a b c to represent a portion of the earth's surface a being towards the north pole, c towards the south pole...The currents of air are supposed to pass in the direction of the arrows. the wind, therefore, for a to b would blow on the surface of the earth, from north to south, while from e to a, the upper current would pass from south to north, untl it came to a, when it would change is direction towards the south." -Comstock 1850

Opposite Currents of Air

"Suppose a b c to represent a portion of the earth's surface a being towards the north pole, c towards…

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution of Potassuim Cyanide (KCN), containing 0.05 to 0.3 percent KCN (or its equivalent, Sodium Cyanide, NaCN) which is allowed to remain for twelve to twenty-four hours to dissolve the gold.

Cyanide Leaching Tank (Gold Extraction)

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution…

"Partly fill with strong brine a Florence glask the cork of which carries a delivery-tube and a thermometer. Pass the delivery-tube through a 'water jacket,' J, kept cool substantially as shown. Heat the liequid in the flask unitl it just boils, and taste the distilled water that collects in R." -Avery 1895

Distilation

"Partly fill with strong brine a Florence glask the cork of which carries a delivery-tube and a thermometer.…

This illustration shows a drying frame and drying rack used in glue manufacturing.

Drying Rack (Glue Manufacturing)

This illustration shows a drying frame and drying rack used in glue manufacturing.

"If the two wires from a battery be placed in pure water, it will be foud tat practically no current passes...If a small quantity of sulphuric acid is added to the water, the solution is a good conductor. During the passage of current, bubbles form at the ends of the wires: at the positive electrode (anode)...oxygen appear[s]; at the negative electrode (cathode) there is a rapid evolution of hydrogen." -Brownlee 1907

Electrolysis

"If the two wires from a battery be placed in pure water, it will be foud tat practically no current…

"The expansion of solids by heat is clearly shown by the following experiment: m represents a ring of metal, through which, at the ordinary temperature, a small iron or copper ball, a, will pass freely, this ball being a little less than the diameter of the ring. If this ball be now heated by the flame of an alcohol lame, it will be come so far expanded by heat as no longer to pass through the ring." —Wells, 1857

Expansion of Solids

"The expansion of solids by heat is clearly shown by the following experiment: m represents a ring of…

An illustration of a drop of milk showing fatglobules, highly magnified.

Drop of Milk Showing Fatglobules

An illustration of a drop of milk showing fatglobules, highly magnified.

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the glue (either animal bone or hide) is soaked in a milk of lime (or in some cases, Hydrochloric or Sulfurous acid) to purify and loosen particles.

First Stage in Glue Manufacturing

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the…

A flame being emitted from a Bunsen burner, lighting a match.

Blowpipe Flame

A flame being emitted from a Bunsen burner, lighting a match.

"The reducing flame (as of a blowpipe) is that part of the flame which is deficient in oxygen for combustion (RF in figure), and which has therefore a reducing effect, or, n other words, tends to deprive the substance under examination of oxygen; the oxidizing flame is that part (OF in figure) in which the oxygen is in excess, and which exerts the opposite or oxidizing effect. The distinction is important in blowpipe analysis." -Whitney, 1911

Reducing and Oxidizing Flames

"The reducing flame (as of a blowpipe) is that part of the flame which is deficient in oxygen for combustion…

"Draw out a piece of glass tubing to a jet, and push it through a perforation in a cork that snugly fits a bottle. Slip a short piece of snugly fitting rubber tubing over the outer end of the glass tubing, and insert the cork so that the jet shall project into the bottle. Remove by suction as much air as possible, pinch the rubber tubing tightly, place it under water, and remove the pressure. Something will force the water into the bottle, forming the 'fountain in vacuo' as shown." -Avery 1895

Foutain in Vacuo

"Draw out a piece of glass tubing to a jet, and push it through a perforation in a cork that snugly…

This illustration shows gas with a heavier density then air collecting at the bottom of a beaker.

Gas Density

This illustration shows gas with a heavier density then air collecting at the bottom of a beaker.

"Invert the second vessel over the first, mouth to mouth, so that the contents of the two vessels shall be separated only by the paper. Each vessel is filled with an invisible gas. Remove the paper, and notice that the invisible gases quickly-diffuse into each other and form a dense cloud." -Avery 1895

Mixing Gases in Inverted Containers

"Invert the second vessel over the first, mouth to mouth, so that the contents of the two vessels shall…

"Place a bar of iron and a similar one of copper end to end so as to be heated equally by the flame of a lamp. Fasten small balls by wax to the under surfaces of the bars at eqiual distances apart. More balls will be melted from the copper than from the iron." -Avery 1895

Difference of Heat Transference Between Copper and Iron

"Place a bar of iron and a similar one of copper end to end so as to be heated equally by the flame…

This illustration shows a chemistry experiment where metal is heated to an extreme temperature.

Heated Metal

This illustration shows a chemistry experiment where metal is heated to an extreme temperature.

A Hempel Gas Burette is an instrument used to measure gases.

Hempel Gas Burette

A Hempel Gas Burette is an instrument used to measure gases.

This illustration shows a test to show the proportions of weight between hydrogen and oxygen.

Hydrogen Weight

This illustration shows a test to show the proportions of weight between hydrogen and oxygen.

Hydrostatics is a branch of hydrodynamics that deals with the statics of fluids that are usually combined to an equilibrium and pressure of liquids. Image a is a vessel with a wooden block of the same size and image b, which has the same dimensions as image a, is filled with water and has a depth the same length as the wooden block. The pressure per square inch would be 100/10 = 10

Hydromechanics

Hydrostatics is a branch of hydrodynamics that deals with the statics of fluids that are usually combined…

Water that is placed in an apparatus will have equal pressure if the pistons pushing on it push at the same time with the same frequency.

Hydromechanics

Water that is placed in an apparatus will have equal pressure if the pistons pushing on it push at the…

"Joule's experiment on the mechanical equivalent of heat, in which he caused paddlewheels to rotate in a vessel of water by means of falling weights W." -Hawkins, 1917

Joule's Experiment

"Joule's experiment on the mechanical equivalent of heat, in which he caused paddlewheels to rotate…

Image of a typical alcohol lamp

Alcohol Lamp

Image of a typical alcohol lamp

The general rule of downward pressure is "the pressure upon the bottom of a vessel containing a fluid is independent of the shape of the vessel, and is equal to the weight of a prism of the fluid whose base has the same area as the bottom of the vessel, and whose altitude is the distance between the bottom and the upper surface of the fluid, plus the pressure per unit of area upon the upper surface of the fluid multiplied by the area of the bottom of the vessel."

General Law

The general rule of downward pressure is "the pressure upon the bottom of a vessel containing a fluid…

"Liquid air is air reduced to a liquid form. Liquid air when pure has a bluish tinge, but the liquid form of ordinary air has a somewhat cloudy appearance owing to the presence of solid carbon dioxide and other matters. If a kettle containing liquid air be placed on a block of ice, boiling will again take place and the addition of ice to the contents of the kettle will make the boiling proceed more rapidly."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Liquid Air Boiling on a Block of Ice

"Liquid air is air reduced to a liquid form. Liquid air when pure has a bluish tinge, but the liquid…

This illustration shows liquid run into molds to cool into jelly in the glue manufacturing process.

Liquid in Molds (Glue)

This illustration shows liquid run into molds to cool into jelly in the glue manufacturing process.

"When placed together after the air has been taken out, it will take two very strong men to pull apart." -Comstock 1850

Magdeburgh Hemispheres

"When placed together after the air has been taken out, it will take two very strong men to pull apart."…

An illustration of the concave of a meniscus.

Concave of Meniscus

An illustration of the concave of a meniscus.

An illustration of the convex of a meniscus.

Convex of Meniscus

An illustration of the convex of a meniscus.

This illustration shows the proportions of volume in which hydrogen and oxygen combine by introducing the two gases into a tube, filled with mercury and inverted within a cylinder of mercury.

Mercury Tube

This illustration shows the proportions of volume in which hydrogen and oxygen combine by introducing…

This illustration shows metal sinking to the bottom of a beaker.

Metal Density

This illustration shows metal sinking to the bottom of a beaker.

The interior of a jar mill, which is used to convert hard substances, like the porcelain balls in the picture, into a fine powder for use in common applications.

Jar Mill

The interior of a jar mill, which is used to convert hard substances, like the porcelain balls in the…

"...a certain amount of salt may be successfully dropped into a tumbler brim-full of water without causing it to overflow. The particles of water, which are supposed to be globular, do not everywhere touch each other, and the particles of salt are accommodated in the interstices between them." —Quackenbos 1859

Water with Salt Molecules

"...a certain amount of salt may be successfully dropped into a tumbler brim-full of water without causing…

This illustration shows the old method of boiling glue in a rope bag, then squeezed dry against a beam.

Old Method of Boiling and Drying (Glue)

This illustration shows the old method of boiling glue in a rope bag, then squeezed dry against a beam.

A gas holder is a metallic shell which is open at the bottom (like a bell), the lower edge of which dips into a deep tank of water in order to prevent the contained gas from escaping. The framework may be either of steel or timber -- the latter being preferred for the largest holders.

This illustration shows a partial section of a typical large American gas holder. It is a 5,000,000 cubic foot holder in New York City.

Partial Section of Typical Large American Gas Holder

A gas holder is a metallic shell which is open at the bottom (like a bell), the lower edge of which…

"Pressure exerted anywhere upon a liquid inclosed in a vessel is transmitted undiminished in all direction, and acts with the same force upon all equal surfaces, and in a direction at right angles to those surfaces." -Avery 1895

Pascal's Law

"Pressure exerted anywhere upon a liquid inclosed in a vessel is transmitted undiminished in all direction,…

In image a, the pressure at the bottom is the same as the pressure at the top of the cylinder. If the area at the bottom and the depth of the liquid of image b is the same as image a, then the pressures will be the same for both.

Downward Pressure

In image a, the pressure at the bottom is the same as the pressure at the top of the cylinder. If the…

Example of an apparatus that is used to measure lateral (sideways) pressure.

Lateral Pressure

Example of an apparatus that is used to measure lateral (sideways) pressure.

The effects of lateral pressure. The lateral pressures of any two points of the surface of the apparatus and its opposite side are equal.

Lateral Pressure

The effects of lateral pressure. The lateral pressures of any two points of the surface of the apparatus…

No upward pressure is present on surface c because of because of the weight of the water in part c d. Upward pressure is present on c because of the weight of the water in part b c.

Upward Pressure

No upward pressure is present on surface c because of because of the weight of the water in part c d.…

"Get a lamp-chimney, preferably cylindrical. With a diamond or a steel glass-cutter, cut a disk of window glass a little larger than the cross-section of the lamp-chimney. Pour some fine emery powder on the disk, and rub one end of the chimney upon it, thus grinding them until they fit accurately...place [the chimney] under the water as shown. the upward pressure of the water will hold the disk in place. Pour water carefully into the tube; the disk will fall as soon as the weight of the water in the chimney plus the weight of th disk, exceeds the upward pressure of the water." -Avery 1895

Water Pressure Experiment

"Get a lamp-chimney, preferably cylindrical. With a diamond or a steel glass-cutter, cut a disk of window…

"After pouring mercury into the U-tube, the level of mercury is marked by a. c and e refer to the positions of the mercury after water has been added so that the water fills one side of the U-tube." -Avery 1895

Effects of Water on Mercury in a U-tube

"After pouring mercury into the U-tube, the level of mercury is marked by a. c and e refer to the positions…

"By measuring the weight required to move the end cap of any of the shown tubes filled with water, it may be ascertained that the water required is only dependent on the level of water, not the weight." -Avery 1895

Water Pressure Independent of Vessel

"By measuring the weight required to move the end cap of any of the shown tubes filled with water, it…

"When heated, hydrogen will combine with the oxygen of many oxides, forming water (steam) and the metal, thus: Copper oxide + hydrogen yields copper + water. The process of taking oxygen away from a substance is called reduction..." -Brownlee 1907

Reduction of Copper Oxide

"When heated, hydrogen will combine with the oxygen of many oxides, forming water (steam) and the metal,…