"Flame. a, area of no combustion. b, area of partial combustion. c, area of complete combustion." -Foster, 1921

Flame Parts

"Flame. a, area of no combustion. b, area of partial combustion. c, area of complete combustion." -Foster,…

"Wood is heated in cylindrical iron retorts. the volatile materials are cooled, and while a portion remains gaseous and is used as fuel, a large part is condensed to a dark, tarry liquid." -Brownlee 1907

Cylindrical Iron Retort and Condenser

"Wood is heated in cylindrical iron retorts. the volatile materials are cooled, and while a portion…

The Great Fire of London, a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of London from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666, was one of the major events in the history of England. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman City Wall. It threatened, but did not reach, the aristocratic district of Westminster (the modern West End), Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, and most of the suburban slums. It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St. Paul's Cathedral, and most of the buildings of the City authorities. It is estimated that it destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City's ca. 80,000 inhabitants.

Great Fire of London

The Great Fire of London, a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of London from…

William Tecumseh Sherman served as a General in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Here his troops are burning a railroad station.

Sherman's Troops Burning a Railroad Station

William Tecumseh Sherman served as a General in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Here his…

Tar is made from the turpentine by the smothered burning of the wood. When burning the wood, it is placed in a pile resembling a cone with the point cut off.

Manufacturing of Turpentine

Tar is made from the turpentine by the smothered burning of the wood. When burning the wood, it is placed…