Attack of the gunboats at Fort Donelson, one of the most influential battles in American history. This view is southwest. The attack of General Smith was from the ground behind the house on the right.

Attack of the Gunboats at Fort Donelson

Attack of the gunboats at Fort Donelson, one of the most influential battles in American history. This…

A breech-loader captured in the war with Mexico.

Breech-Loader

A breech-loader captured in the war with Mexico.

A large hollow metal cylinder closed at one end, and variously mounted, used for throwing balls by the force of gun powder.

Cannon

A large hollow metal cylinder closed at one end, and variously mounted, used for throwing balls by the…

A bronze breech-loading cannon captured in Corea, age unknown.

Cannon

A bronze breech-loading cannon captured in Corea, age unknown.

A U. S. N. medium 32-pounder.

Cannon

A U. S. N. medium 32-pounder.

A cannon from the time of Cortez. "It will be observed that the pieces have no trunnions, and are supported in a kind of trough. They were breech-loaders by means of chambers, three of which, with handles, are seen (in the cut) lying on the ground, and one is in place, in the gun on the right. In the Naval Museum at Annapolis there are guns captured to be the ones used by Cortes. A search of the records of the Ordnance Department at Washington, instituted for me by Commodore Sicard, at the suggestion of Prof. Charles E. Munroe of the Naval Academy, has not, however, revealed any documentary evidence; but a paper in the <em>Army and Navy Journal</em>, Nov. 22, 1884, shows such guns to have been captured by Lieutenant Wyse in the 'Darien.' The guns at Annapolis are provided with like chambers, as seen in photographs kindly sent to me. Similar chambers are now, or were recently, used in firing salutes on the Queen's birthday in St. James' Park." &mdash; Winsor, 1886.

Cannon

A cannon from the time of Cortez. "It will be observed that the pieces have no trunnions, and are supported…

An illustration of the fortification around Constantinople and soldiers firing cannons.

Constantinople

An illustration of the fortification around Constantinople and soldiers firing cannons.

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A desperate and disastrous action occurred on the banks of the Potomac, at Dam No. 4. General Butterfield's brigade, consisting of the Forty-fourth New York, Seventeenth New York, Eighteenth Massachusetts and One Hundred and Eighteenth Pennsylvania, were ordered to make a reconnoissance on the Virginia side. Crossing over at Dam No. 4, which is about six miles northwest in a straight line from Sharpsburg, and eight south from Williamsport, they had hardly landed when a most murderous fire was opened upon them from an entire division of the Confederate army, every volley of which told, as they had the Federals completely under range. The Federals made a desperate resistance, but they were compelled to retire before superior numbers, and retreated in moderate order across the river." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Battle at Dam No. 4

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A…

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A desperate and disastrous action occurred on the banks of the Potomac, at Dam No. 4. General Butterfield's brigade, consisting of the Forty-fourth New York, Seventeenth New York, Eighteenth Massachusetts and One Hundred and Eighteenth Pennsylvania, were ordered to make a reconnoissance on the Virginia side. Crossing over at Dam No. 4, which is about six miles northwest in a straight line from Sharpsburg, and eight south from Williamsport, they had hardly landed when a most murderous fire was opened upon them from an entire division of the Confederate army, every volley of which told, as they had the Federals completely under range. The Federals made a desperate resistance, but they were compelled to retire before superior numbers, and retreated in moderate order across the river." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Battle at Dam No. 4

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A…

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A desperate and disastrous action occurred on the banks of the Potomac, at Dam No. 4. General Butterfield's brigade, consisting of the Forty-fourth New York, Seventeenth New York, Eighteenth Massachusetts and One Hundred and Eighteenth Pennsylvania, were ordered to make a reconnoissance on the Virginia side. Crossing over at Dam No. 4, which is about six miles northwest in a straight line from Sharpsburg, and eight south from Williamsport, they had hardly landed when a most murderous fire was opened upon them from an entire division of the Confederate army, every volley of which told, as they had the Federals completely under range. The Federals made a desperate resistance, but they were compelled to retire before superior numbers, and retreated in moderate order across the river." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Battle at Dam No. 4

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A…

"Section of Fort Runyon, Va., guarding the road to Alexandria, occupied by the Twenty-first Regiment, New York Volunteers, August 1861. For Runyon, named after the commander of the New Jersey Regiments which were formerly stationed there, entirely commanded the road to Alexandria. Our sketch shows the battery erected on this important point. The spot was a most picturesque one, commanding a splendid view all around, the background being the Potomac and Washington." —Leslie, 1896

Fort Runyon

"Section of Fort Runyon, Va., guarding the road to Alexandria, occupied by the Twenty-first Regiment,…

Confederate forces bombarding Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861

Bombardment of Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861

Confederate forces bombarding Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861

The bombardment of Fort Wagner, infantry in trenches.

Bombardment of Fort Wagner

The bombardment of Fort Wagner, infantry in trenches.

Depiction of the battle of Gettysburg.

Battle of Gettysburg

Depiction of the battle of Gettysburg.

A gunboat of the Mississippi. Gunboats <I>Essex, Carondelete, Cincinnati, St. Louis, </I> and <I>Benton</I> steamed up to the levee at Cairo during the Civil War.

Gunboat of the Mississippi

A gunboat of the Mississippi. Gunboats Essex, Carondelete, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Benton steamed…

The gunboats shooting at Fort Henry in western Tennessee.

Gunboats at Fort Henry

The gunboats shooting at Fort Henry in western Tennessee.

Hand Cannon, fourteenth century

Hand Cannon

Hand Cannon, fourteenth century

"Exterior view of fortifications erected by the Federal troops at Hilton Head, Port Royal. S. C. Hilton Head is from five to seven miles in width, and about fifteen miles long. The fortifications which we illustrate were built under the direction of Captain Gilmore of the engineers. A correspondent observes of them: 'According to the lay of the land here, there is a space of about half a mile between the woods on the outskirts of our camp, which runs all along the beach to within five hundred yards of the fort, before you come to the bayou or creek, and extends about one mile distant inland from the beach. Here Captain Gilmore has dug an entrenchment reaching over and filling the entire space between the woods and the bayou, which makes us completely shaded from any enemy who might try to surprise us or retake the fort.'"&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Hilton Head

"Exterior view of fortifications erected by the Federal troops at Hilton Head, Port Royal. S. C. Hilton…

"Interior of the Mortar Battery Stanton, Tybee Island, Ga., showing the operation of 13-inch mortars during the bombardment of Fort Pulaski, April 10th, 1862. The works erected were eleven batteries, with a parapet in front eight feet high, with a bomb-proof traverse between every two guns, the sides of the parapets and traverses being riveted with rods, fascines or hurdle works. The mortars fire over the parapets, and the guns through embrasures cut in the parapets. The batteries nearest to Fort Pulaski were connected with trenches to permit a safe communication between them. All the advanced batteries had splinter-proof shelters, and each one three reliefs, so that two of them were all the time under shelter. These advanced batteries had also a bomb-proof surgery, supplied with a table and all requisites for surgical operations, and each battery had also a well of water. In a word, the admirable manner in which these works were constructed and arranged stamped General Gilmore as one of the greatest engineers of the age Mortar Battery Stanton had three 13-inch mortars, each weighing 17,120 pounds, with a range of 3,476 yards."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Mortar Battery Stanton

"Interior of the Mortar Battery Stanton, Tybee Island, Ga., showing the operation of 13-inch mortars…

An illustration of a 240 mm Trench Mortar used by the French during World War I, and designed by Dumezil&mdash;Batignolles. The mortar had a short barrel firing 192 lb. bombs.

240 mm Trench Mortar

An illustration of a 240 mm Trench Mortar used by the French during World War I, and designed by Dumezil—Batignolles.…

An schematic illustration of the 3 inch Stokes mortar. The mortar is made out of steel and screwed onto the ground for support by a cap. The mortar was used by the British in the trench during World War I.

Barrel View of Stokes Mortar

An schematic illustration of the 3 inch Stokes mortar. The mortar is made out of steel and screwed onto…

A light carriage minenwerfer class mortar used for direct fire. The barrel and the shifting lever is moved up during loading, while the angle of the mortar is adjusted by the elevating screw in the front.

Rifled Carriage Light Minenwerfer Mortar

A light carriage minenwerfer class mortar used for direct fire. The barrel and the shifting lever is…

The illustration shows a schematic view of the Stokes Mortar being mounted onto the bipod. The mortar is mounted on to the bipod. The bipod adjusts the mortar's angle by adjusting the the elevating handle moving the gears.

Front View of Stokes Mortar with Bipod

The illustration shows a schematic view of the Stokes Mortar being mounted onto the bipod. The mortar…

An illustration showing the German minenwerfer, or mine launcher, class for short range mortars. The mortar weighs around 1693 pounds, and has a rifle length of 4.54 calibers.

Rifled Heavy Minenwerfer Mortar

An illustration showing the German minenwerfer, or mine launcher, class for short range mortars. The…

A light minenwerfer with 7.6 cm caliber designed by German during World War I. The series of gears adjusts the angle of the barrel by turning the hand crank.

Rifled Light Minenwerfer Mortar

A light minenwerfer with 7.6 cm caliber designed by German during World War I. The series of gears adjusts…

The illustration of a medium trench mortar used during World War I. The mortar was designed with a rifled barrel to spin stabilize the shell.

Rifled Medium Trench Mortar

The illustration of a medium trench mortar used during World War I. The mortar was designed with a rifled…

"The mortar is a stout cannon of forged steel with simple vent firing and rear trunnions. The maximum pressure with the heaviest bomb is 16 tons to the square inch." &mdash;Encyclopeadia Britannica, 1922

Mounted Steel Mortar

"The mortar is a stout cannon of forged steel with simple vent firing and rear trunnions. The maximum…

First day's bombardment, Federal Schooners off Forts Jackson and St. Philip, commanding the passage of the river. The Federal offensive force consisted of six sloops of war, sixteen gunboats and twenty-one mortar vessels. These were accompanied by a large number of storeships, tenders, etc. On the 18th of April, they anchored three miles below Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and prepared for active operations. Captain Porter, commanding the mortar flotilla, wishing to ascertain their range before his actual attack, stationed the <em>Arietta, John Griffiths<em> and <em>Orvetta<em> about two and a half miles from the forts. The <em>Arietta<em> fired the first shot, to which Fort Jackson replied. The Confederate shots fell short more than fifty yards every time, while the effect of our shells on the fort was such that after two explosions the enemy retired from their barbette guns, and afterward only used those in the casemates.

The Great Naval Battle on the Mississippi

First day's bombardment, Federal Schooners off Forts Jackson and St. Philip, commanding the passage…

Recapture of artillery by the First Ohio and other regiments under General Rousseau, April 7, 1862. The flight of the 53rd and 57th Ohio Regiments left Waterhouse's battery, which was planted on a hill to the left of Shiloh Chapel, unprotected; but the 43rd and 49th Illinois Regiments came to his aid, and supported it until Colonel Wreish of the 43rd was killed, when they fell back in tolerable order. The Confederates now charged and took Waterhouse's battery, thus flanking General Sherman, who fell back to the Purdy Road in good order. Here the sudden death of Captain Behr, who was getting his battery in position on the left wing of the new line, created a panic in his company, which broke and left five guns. Not being supported by any other division, General Sherman was forced back to the right of McClernand, where he again formed and shared the fortunes of the day.

Battle of Pittsburg Landing

Recapture of artillery by the First Ohio and other regiments under General Rousseau, April 7, 1862.…

"Reconnoissance by Colonel Max Weber's Turner rifles in the vicinity of Newmarket Bridge, on the road to Yorktown, Va."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Reconnoissance

"Reconnoissance by Colonel Max Weber's Turner rifles in the vicinity of Newmarket Bridge, on the road…

A 192 pound bomb shell for the 240 mm trench mortar used during World War I. The vanes, or wings, are at the end of the case perpendicular to each other.

192 Pound Trench Mortar Bomb Shell

A 192 pound bomb shell for the 240 mm trench mortar used during World War I. The vanes, or wings, are…

"Colonel Pilson's Battery shelling the rear guard of the Confederate General Jackson's Army, at the Crossing of the Shenandoah River, Tuesday, June 3rd, 1862. As soon as colonel Pilson could bring up his guns they were unlimbered on either side of the road and opened on the Confederate batteries. Beyond the river stretched a broad plain, the further end of which sloped gradually up into an irregular eminence, along which the enemy had placed its artillery on its further side, and in the neighboring woods its troops were quietly encamped, out of range, and with the Shenandoah River in their rear were safe for the night, as they supposed. It was soon found that the distance was too great for the guns. Colonel Albert, chief of staff, was in advance, and reconnoitring the position, with a soldier's eye saw that the river bent suddenly half a mile beyond the bridge, and sent Schirmer's battery to a hill on this side, which flanked the confederate camp, and at once forced them to withdraw to a more secure position." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Crossing of Shenandoah River

"Colonel Pilson's Battery shelling the rear guard of the Confederate General Jackson's Army, at the…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…