"A complex crystal of apatite with the faces of a third-order pyramid upon it." — Ford, 1912

Apatite

"A complex crystal of apatite with the faces of a third-order pyramid upon it." — Ford, 1912

Inclination of Axis to Orbit and Ecliptic.

Axis

Inclination of Axis to Orbit and Ecliptic.

Basaltic Columns at Finagl's Cave in Scotland. It is formed entirely from hexagonally-jointed basalt.

Basaltic Columns

Basaltic Columns at Finagl's Cave in Scotland. It is formed entirely from hexagonally-jointed basalt.

This border was designed by Oronce Fine a French Mathematician and Cartographer in 1534. It has a design of scrolls all around, and images of figures that are playing music, displaying mathematics and geography.

Oronce Fine

This border was designed by Oronce Fine a French Mathematician and Cartographer in 1534. It has a design…

The continents during this age consisted mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with luxuriant vegetation.

Carboniferous Landscape

The continents during this age consisted mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with luxuriant…

Diagram of points on a compass.

Compass Points

Diagram of points on a compass.

If the earth were flat, as soon as an object appeared on the horizon we would see the upper and lower parts at the same time; but if it were curved, the top parts would first be seen.

Curvature of the Earth's Surface

If the earth were flat, as soon as an object appeared on the horizon we would see the upper and lower…

The Earth in Space.

Earth

The Earth in Space.

Cause of the Curved Shape of the Earth's Orbit.

Earth Orbit

Cause of the Curved Shape of the Earth's Orbit.

Scenery of the Egyptian desert with pyramids in the background.

Egyptian Desert

Scenery of the Egyptian desert with pyramids in the background.

"Maps to illustrate the supposed stages in the erosion history of the Pomperaug River." -Walcott, 1901

Erosion Stages

"Maps to illustrate the supposed stages in the erosion history of the Pomperaug River." -Walcott, 1901

"View of the southeastern slope of the eastern twin of Orenaug Hill. Fault scarps bound the hummocky surface of the block on the northeast and west; the courses of the scarps follow the fringes of trees." -Walcott, 1901

Fault Scarp Slope

"View of the southeastern slope of the eastern twin of Orenaug Hill. Fault scarps bound the hummocky…

"Fault scarps of Orenaug Hill (floating block topography). The view is taken from the top of a cliff in the eastern twin hill." -Walcott, 1901

Fault Scarps

"Fault scarps of Orenaug Hill (floating block topography). The view is taken from the top of a cliff…

Fissures produced by the Charleston Earthquake of 1886.

Fissures

Fissures produced by the Charleston Earthquake of 1886.

Five ships coming over the horizon.

Five Ships

Five ships coming over the horizon.

When the remains of an animal or plant are exposed to the air or buried in dry earth, they generally decompose and pass off almost entirely as gasses; but when buried under water or in damp earth, their preservation is probable. Therefore, the species most likely to become fossilized are those living in water or marshes, or in the neighborhood of water or marshes.

Fossil Encrinite

When the remains of an animal or plant are exposed to the air or buried in dry earth, they generally…

"Isometric. Common forms dodecahedron amd trapezohedron, often in combination." — Ford, 1912

Garnet

"Isometric. Common forms dodecahedron amd trapezohedron, often in combination." — Ford, 1912

Various Geography items, including a globe and many maps.

Geography

Various Geography items, including a globe and many maps.

An illustration of a globe (El mundo).

Globe

An illustration of a globe (El mundo).

This globe is a carved work of art.

Globe

This globe is a carved work of art.

"An artificial sphere on whose surface is drawn a map or representation of the earth." -Whitney, 1911

Terrestrial Globe

"An artificial sphere on whose surface is drawn a map or representation of the earth." -Whitney, 1911

A Great Circle is one which would be formed on the earth's surface by a plane passing through the earth's centre, hence dividing it into two equal parts. All great circles, therefore, divide the earth into two hemispheres.

Great Circle

A Great Circle is one which would be formed on the earth's surface by a plane passing through the earth's…

Professor of Physical Geography and Natural Philosophy in the Central High School of Philadelphia; Professor of Physics in the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania.

Edwin J. Houston

Professor of Physical Geography and Natural Philosophy in the Central High School of Philadelphia; Professor…

These zones, which are separated by the parallels of latitude, are generally termed the <em>astronomical</em> or <em>mathematical zones</em> to distinguish them from others called <em>physical zones</em>, which are bounded by the lines of mean annual temperature.

Mathematical Climate Zones

These zones, which are separated by the parallels of latitude, are generally termed the astronomical

The Meridian of any given place is that half of the meridian circle which passes through that place and both poles. A meridian of any place reaches from that place to both poles, and therefore is equal to one-half of a great circle, and, with the meridian directly opposite to it, forms a great circle called a meridian circle. There are as many meridians as there are places on the equator or on any parallel. Parallels are small circles which pass around the earth parallel to the equator.

Meridians and Parallels

The Meridian of any given place is that half of the meridian circle which passes through that place…

Picture of a mountain erupting.

Mountain

Picture of a mountain erupting.

The shape of the earth is that of a round ball or sphere slightly flattened at two opposite sides. Such a body is termed a <em>spheroid</em>. There are two kinds of spheroids-<em>oblate</em> and <em>prolate</em>; the former as the shape of an orange, the latter that of a lemon. The straight line that runs through the centre of a sphere or spheroid and terminates at the circumference is called the <em>diameter</em>. If the sphere rotates-that is, moves around like a top-the diameter on which it turns is called the <em>axis</em>. In the oblate spheroid the axis is the shorter diameter; in the prolate spheroid the axis is the longer diameter.

Oblate and Prolate Spheroid

The shape of the earth is that of a round ball or sphere slightly flattened at two opposite sides. Such…

"Unit orographic blocks in granite, near the knife works, Hotchkissville. a Area over downthrown block." -Walcott, 1901

Orographic Blocks

"Unit orographic blocks in granite, near the knife works, Hotchkissville. a Area over downthrown block."…

Claudius Ptolemaeus, known as Ptolemy, was an ancient geographer, astrologer, and astronomer.

Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemaeus, known as Ptolemy, was an ancient geographer, astrologer, and astronomer.

Claudius Ptolemaeus, known as Ptolemy, was an ancient geographer, astrologer, and astronomer.

Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemaeus, known as Ptolemy, was an ancient geographer, astrologer, and astronomer.

A small circle is one formed by a plane which does not cut the earth into two equal parts. The small circles are the <em>parallels</em>.

Small Circle

A small circle is one formed by a plane which does not cut the earth into two equal parts. The small…

"It consists of four isoceles triangular faces which intersect all three of the crystallographic axes, the intercepts on the two horizontal axes being equal. The faces correspond in their position to the alternating faces of the tetragonal pyramid of the first order." &mdash; Ford, 1912

Sphenoid

"It consists of four isoceles triangular faces which intersect all three of the crystallographic axes,…

The different layers or strata are shown by the shadling's. Stratified rocks are the most common of rock's found near the earth's surface. Stratified rocks are largely composed of fragments of older rocks; for this reason they are sometimes called <em>fragmental</em> rocks.

Stratified Rock

The different layers or strata are shown by the shadling's. Stratified rocks are the most common of…

An eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

Mount Vesuvius

An eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

The sides of volcanic cones are often rent during the eruption, and the fissures filled with lava, which hardens and forms rocky ribs called <em>dykes</em>. Sometimes the central cone becomes choked, and secondary or parasitic cones are formed.

Volcanic Dykes and Parasitic Cones

The sides of volcanic cones are often rent during the eruption, and the fissures filled with lava, which…

"The internal structure of many cones has been laid bare by prolonged erosion after the volcano has become extinct." — Hinman, 1888

Section of a volcano

"The internal structure of many cones has been laid bare by prolonged erosion after the volcano has…