"Water enters the wheel halfway up and flows against the slots on the wheel. The wheel rotates with the flow of the water and the stream continues out the bottom of the wheel." —Quackenbos 1859

Breast Wheel

"Water enters the wheel halfway up and flows against the slots on the wheel. The wheel rotates with…

"Used to raise water with a continuous chain with evenly spaced circular plates. The plates exactly fit a hollow tube, G and H. When the wheels I, J are turned, they move the chain which carries water up the pipe into the collection reservoir." —Quackenbos 1859

Chain Pump

"Used to raise water with a continuous chain with evenly spaced circular plates. The plates exactly…

"An instrument called the hydrostatic bellows, also shows, in a striking manner, the great force of a small quantity of water, pressing in a perpendicular direction. This instrument consists of two boards, connected together with strong leather, in the manner of the common bellows. It is then furnished with a tube a, which communicated between the two boards. A person standing on the upper board may raise himself up by pouring water into the tube. If the tube holds an ounce of water, and has an area equal to a thousandth part of the area of the top of the bellows, one ounce of water in the tube will balance a thousand ounces placed on the bellows." —Comstock, 1850

Hydraulic Bellows

"An instrument called the hydrostatic bellows, also shows, in a striking manner, the great force of…

A machine capable of pressure of 2,000 tons. It is able to cold form metal, and is used to make material for the concrete industry.

Hydraulic Press

A machine capable of pressure of 2,000 tons. It is able to cold form metal, and is used to make material…

"The pump barrel, a, b, is represented as divided lengthwise, in order to show the inside. The piston, c, is fitted so accurately to the barrel, as to work up and down water tight; both barrel and piston being made of iron. The thing to be broken or pressed, is laid on the flat surface, i, there being above this, a strong frame to meet the pressure, not shown in the figure. The small forcing pump, of which d is the piston, and h, the lever by which it is worked, is also made of iron." —Comstock, 1850

Hydraulic Press

"The pump barrel, a, b, is represented as divided lengthwise, in order to show the inside. The piston,…

"Pascal's Law finds an important application in the hydraulic press, in the more common forms of which the pressure of a piston operated by a lever is transmitted through a pipe to a piston of larger area." -Avery 1895

Hydraulic Press

"Pascal's Law finds an important application in the hydraulic press, in the more common forms of which…

"Pascal's Law finds an important application in the hydraulic press, in the more common forms of which the pressure of a piston operated by a lever is transmitted through a pipe to a piston of larger area." -Avery 1895

Hydraulic Press, Perspective

"Pascal's Law finds an important application in the hydraulic press, in the more common forms of which…

Machine for raising water, and depending for its action on the impulse of flowing water.

Hydraulic Ram

Machine for raising water, and depending for its action on the impulse of flowing water.

"Pumps water in bursts. Water enters pipe B and is forced into D then up the tube F. Any excess water in tube B exits through E." —Quackenbos 1859

Hydraulic Ram

"Pumps water in bursts. Water enters pipe B and is forced into D then up the tube F. Any excess water…

Salt lick hydraulic-fill dam, Pennsylvania.

Hydraulic-fill Dam

Salt lick hydraulic-fill dam, Pennsylvania.

A diagram showing hydraulic analogy of ignition system.

Ignition System

A diagram showing hydraulic analogy of ignition system.

Tool for exerting pressure or lifting

Lifting Jack

Tool for exerting pressure or lifting

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and C causing A to rotate. This rotation powers the millstone S at the top which grinds the grain before it reaches the dispersal tube A." —Quackenbos 1859

Barker's Mill

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and…

Device which converts hydraulic fluid power into mechanical force and motion by transfer of flow under pressure. It usually provided rotary mechanical motion.

Hydraulic Motor

Device which converts hydraulic fluid power into mechanical force and motion by transfer of flow under…

"Wheel consists of flaps in the shape of buckets that are equally spaced. As water flows onto the wheel, the weight of the water in the buckets causes the wheel to rotate and empty the buckets." —Quackenbos 1859

Overshot Wheel

"Wheel consists of flaps in the shape of buckets that are equally spaced. As water flows onto the wheel,…

"Pascal's law finds an important application in the hydraulic press, in the more common forms of which the pressure of a piston operated by a lever is transmitted though a pipe to a piston of larger area." — Avery, 1895

Hydraulic press

"Pascal's law finds an important application in the hydraulic press, in the more common forms of which…

Press in which a force applied by a piston to a small area is transmitted through water to another piston having a large area

Hydraulic Press

Press in which a force applied by a piston to a small area is transmitted through water to another piston…

"Water enters through J and K following into G and H compartments. Afterwards the water is forced into the outside compartments thus turning the wheel." —Quackenbos 1859

Water Turbine

"Water enters through J and K following into G and H compartments. Afterwards the water is forced into…

"Waterwheel where the lowest flat-board is submerged in the running water. The water is often given its power from a slight inclination. This wheel is also often powered by the running water issued by a dam." —Quackenbos 1859

Undershot Wheel

"Waterwheel where the lowest flat-board is submerged in the running water. The water is often given…