"First naval battle in Hampton Roads between the Confederate iron-plated steamers <em>Merrimac, Yorktown</em>, and <em>Jamestown</em>, and the Federal wooden sailing frigates <em>Cumberland</em> and <em>Congress</em>- sinking of the <em>Cumberland</em> by a blow from the <em>Merrimac</em>, March 8th, 1862- sketched by our special artist. About noon on the 8th, a suspicious-looking vessel, looking like a submerged house, with the roof only above water, was discovered, moving down from Norfolk, by the channel in front of Sewall's Point batteries. There was nothing protruding above the water but a flagstaff flying the Confederate flag and a short smokestack. She moved along slowly, and turned into the channel leading to Newport News, and steamed direct for the wooden sailing frigates <em>Cumberland</em> and <em>Congress</em>, which were lying at the mouth of James River. As soon as she came within range of the <em>Cumberland</em>, the latter opened on her with her heavy guns; but the balls struck and glanced off without effect. In the meantime, as the <em>Merrimac</em> was approaching the two frigates on one side, the Confederate ironclad steamers <em>Yorktown</em> and <em>Jamestown</em> came down James River, and engaged the frigates on the other side. The batteries at Newport News also opened on the <em>Yorktown</em> and <em>Jamestown</em>, and did all in their power to assist the <em>Cumberland</em> and <em>Congress</em>, which, being sailing vessels, were at the mercy of the approaching steamers. The <em>Merrimac</em>, in the meantime, kept steadily on her course, and slowly approached the <em>Cumberland</em>, when she and the <em>Congress</em>, at a distance of one hundred yards, rained full broadsides on the ironclad monters without effect. After receiving the first broadside of the two frigates, she ran on to the <em>Cumberland</em>, striking her about midship, and literally laying open her bow, left her to sink, while she engaged the <em>Congress</em>, which lay about a quarter of a mile distant. The <em>Congress</em>, having no regular crew on board of her, and seeing the hopelessness of resisting the ironclad steamer, at once struck her colors." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

First naval battle

"First naval battle in Hampton Roads between the Confederate iron-plated steamers Merrimac, Yorktown,…

The ruins of Jamestown

Jamestown

The ruins of Jamestown

A view of Jamestown, one of the first American colonies.

Jamestown in 1622

A view of Jamestown, one of the first American colonies.

Ruins of the city of Jamestown.

Ruins of Jamestown

Ruins of the city of Jamestown.

"Jamestown is now an island, for the sandy beach which once connected it with the mainland has disappeared. Only the ruins of the brick church erected in 1639 and some of the tombs in the churchyard remain."&mdash;Webster, 1920

Ruins at the Brick Church at Jamestown

"Jamestown is now an island, for the sandy beach which once connected it with the mainland has disappeared.…

"Down past the mouth of York River, where the French ships were blockading Cornwallis, into James River, and up the James to Jamestown, sailed the ships from Elkton, landing on the 25th, and marching to Williamstown."&mdash;Coffin, 1879

The Landing at Jamestown

"Down past the mouth of York River, where the French ships were blockading Cornwallis, into James River,…

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000 strong, under General Zollicoffer, and the Federal troops, 4,000 strong, commanded by General Thomas, fought Sunday, January 19th, 1862- flight of the Confederate Army. One of the most dashing, desperate and decisive battles of the war took place on Sunday, January 19th, 1862, when a Confederate army of 8,000 men, led by Generals Zollicoffer and Crittenden, were totally routed by General Thomas, at the head of about 4,000 Federal troops. The cannonading began at four o'clock in the morning, and the engagement soon became general. Zollicoffer found, however, that instead of surprising General Thomas, that able and vigilant officer was ready for him. The Confederates fought gallantly throughout that dismal Sabbath day, and owing to their decided superiority in numbers the result was doubtful till near the conclusion of the conflict. The death of Colonel Peyton, who fell gallantly at the head of his regiment, had materially damped the spirits of the Confederates, but the fall of their commander, Zollicoffer, about ten minutes past three in the afternoon, completed their rout. At that hour, as the Fourth Kentucky regiment was deploying on the flank of the Confederate army, Zollicoffer, attended by several of his aids, mistook his way in the underwood, and suddenly emerged before Colonel Fry, who was also with several officers. At first they mistook each other for friends, but upon the mistake being discovered one of the Confederate officers fired at Fry and shot his horse. Almost at the same instant Colonel Fry drew his revolver and shot General Zollicoffer through the heart. His aids, seeing their commander slain, deserted the body, which was taken charge of by the Federal troops, and carried to Somerset. The news spread like wildfire through the Confederate army, which fled with precipitation, and at half-past three not a confederate stood his ground." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Mill Spring

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000…

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000 strong, under General Zollicoffer, and the Federal troops, 4,000 strong, commanded by General Thomas, fought Sunday, January 19th, 1862- flight of the Confederate Army. One of the most dashing, desperate and decisive battles of the war took place on Sunday, January 19th, 1862, when a Confederate army of 8,000 men, led by Generals Zollicoffer and Crittenden, were totally routed by General Thomas, at the head of about 4,000 Federal troops. The cannonading began at four o'clock in the morning, and the engagement soon became general. Zollicoffer found, however, that instead of surprising General Thomas, that able and vigilant officer was ready for him. The Confederates fought gallantly throughout that dismal Sabbath day, and owing to their decided superiority in numbers the result was doubtful till near the conclusion of the conflict. The death of Colonel Peyton, who fell gallantly at the head of his regiment, had materially damped the spirits of the Confederates, but the fall of their commander, Zollicoffer, about ten minutes past three in the afternoon, completed their rout. At that hour, as the Fourth Kentucky regiment was deploying on the flank of the Confederate army, Zollicoffer, attended by several of his aids, mistook his way in the underwood, and suddenly emerged before Colonel Fry, who was also with several officers. At first they mistook each other for friends, but upon the mistake being discovered one of the Confederate officers fired at Fry and shot his horse. Almost at the same instant Colonel Fry drew his revolver and shot General Zollicoffer through the heart. His aids, seeing their commander slain, deserted the body, which was taken charge of by the Federal troops, and carried to Somerset. The news spread like wildfire through the Confederate army, which fled with precipitation, and at half-past three not a confederate stood his ground." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Mill Spring

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000…

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000 strong, under General Zollicoffer, and the Federal troops, 4,000 strong, commanded by General Thomas, fought Sunday, January 19th, 1862- flight of the Confederate Army. One of the most dashing, desperate and decisive battles of the war took place on Sunday, January 19th, 1862, when a Confederate army of 8,000 men, led by Generals Zollicoffer and Crittenden, were totally routed by General Thomas, at the head of about 4,000 Federal troops. The cannonading began at four o'clock in the morning, and the engagement soon became general. Zollicoffer found, however, that instead of surprising General Thomas, that able and vigilant officer was ready for him. The Confederates fought gallantly throughout that dismal Sabbath day, and owing to their decided superiority in numbers the result was doubtful till near the conclusion of the conflict. The death of Colonel Peyton, who fell gallantly at the head of his regiment, had materially damped the spirits of the Confederates, but the fall of their commander, Zollicoffer, about ten minutes past three in the afternoon, completed their rout. At that hour, as the Fourth Kentucky regiment was deploying on the flank of the Confederate army, Zollicoffer, attended by several of his aids, mistook his way in the underwood, and suddenly emerged before Colonel Fry, who was also with several officers. At first they mistook each other for friends, but upon the mistake being discovered one of the Confederate officers fired at Fry and shot his horse. Almost at the same instant Colonel Fry drew his revolver and shot General Zollicoffer through the heart. His aids, seeing their commander slain, deserted the body, which was taken charge of by the Federal troops, and carried to Somerset. The news spread like wildfire through the Confederate army, which fled with precipitation, and at half-past three not a confederate stood his ground." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Mill Spring

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000…

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000 strong, under General Zollicoffer, and the Federal troops, 4,000 strong, commanded by General Thomas, fought Sunday, January 19th, 1862- flight of the Confederate Army. One of the most dashing, desperate and decisive battles of the war took place on Sunday, January 19th, 1862, when a Confederate army of 8,000 men, led by Generals Zollicoffer and Crittenden, were totally routed by General Thomas, at the head of about 4,000 Federal troops. The cannonading began at four o'clock in the morning, and the engagement soon became general. Zollicoffer found, however, that instead of surprising General Thomas, that able and vigilant officer was ready for him. The Confederates fought gallantly throughout that dismal Sabbath day, and owing to their decided superiority in numbers the result was doubtful till near the conclusion of the conflict. The death of Colonel Peyton, who fell gallantly at the head of his regiment, had materially damped the spirits of the Confederates, but the fall of their commander, Zollicoffer, about ten minutes past three in the afternoon, completed their rout. At that hour, as the Fourth Kentucky regiment was deploying on the flank of the Confederate army, Zollicoffer, attended by several of his aids, mistook his way in the underwood, and suddenly emerged before Colonel Fry, who was also with several officers. At first they mistook each other for friends, but upon the mistake being discovered one of the Confederate officers fired at Fry and shot his horse. Almost at the same instant Colonel Fry drew his revolver and shot General Zollicoffer through the heart. His aids, seeing their commander slain, deserted the body, which was taken charge of by the Federal troops, and carried to Somerset. The news spread like wildfire through the Confederate army, which fled with precipitation, and at half-past three not a confederate stood his ground." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Mill Spring

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000…

An English statesman and one of the founders of the proprietary Virginia Company of London, which established the first permanent English settlement of Virginia.

Sir Edwin Sandys

An English statesman and one of the founders of the proprietary Virginia Company of London, which established…

"Second naval battle in Hampton Roads- fight between the Federal ironclad <em>Monitor</em>, of two guns, and the Confederate iron-plated steamers <em>Merrimac, Yorktown</em>, and <em>Jamestown</em>, carrying twenty-four guns, March 9th, 1862. But the gloom that had begun to settle on the fort was greatly dispelled when, toward midnight, an iron marine monster, unlike anything that had ever before been seen on the ocean, made its appearance off the forts. It proved to be the Ericsson iron floating battery of two guns, just from new York. The state of affairs was hastily explained to her commander, and she steamed off to the rescue of the deserted <em>Minnesota</em>. When day dawned the Confederate flotilla, flushed with the success of the previous day, bored down on what was supposed to be an easy prey. the <em>Yorktown</em> and <em>Jamestown</em> drawing least water (The <em>Merrimac</em> evidently afraid of grounding) were ahead, when their course was suddenly stopped by the strange craft, which seemed to have dropped from the clouds. They thought to overcome her easily, and opened fire confidently; but a few of the heavy shot of the <em>Monitor</em>, which battered through and through their iron sides, drove them back in panic behind the gigantic <em>Merrimac</em>, against which the <em>Monitor</em> advanced in turn. And then commenced the most extraordinary naval contest known to history- the first battle between ironclad steamers every fought, and one in which all the appliances of modern skill were brought in conflict. The fight lasted for nearly five hours, when the <em>Yorktown</em> and <em>Jamestown</em> fled up the James River, and the <em>Merrimac</em>, disabled, and in a sinking condition, retreated into Norfolk. The <em>Minnesota</em>, having grounded, was then got off, and the <em>Mintor</em>, a proud proof of the designer's genius and skill, rode undisputed monarch of Hampton waters." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Second naval battle

"Second naval battle in Hampton Roads- fight between the Federal ironclad Monitor, of two guns,…

Captain Sir John Smith (c. January 1580&ndash;June 21, 1631) Admiral of New England was an English soldier, sailor, and author. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia.

Smith's Escape from Slavery

Captain Sir John Smith (c. January 1580–June 21, 1631) Admiral of New England was an English soldier,…

(1580-1631) English leader of Jamestown colony

Captain John Smith

(1580-1631) English leader of Jamestown colony

John Smith, an early colonial settler and leader.

John Smith

John Smith, an early colonial settler and leader.

In 1621, many "respectable young women for wives of those colonists" traveled to Jamestown.

Arrival of the Young Women at Jamestown

In 1621, many "respectable young women for wives of those colonists" traveled to Jamestown.