Akhnaton was a Pharaoh of Egypt in the eighteenth dynasty.

Egyptian Pharaoh Akhnaton

Akhnaton was a Pharaoh of Egypt in the eighteenth dynasty.

The wedding of Arthur and Guenevere in the great Cathedral at Canterbury.

Arthur and Guenevere

The wedding of Arthur and Guenevere in the great Cathedral at Canterbury.

King Arthur draws the sword from the stone.

King Arthur

King Arthur draws the sword from the stone.

Arthur is about to be slain by the great Knight Pellinore but as he raises his sword against Arthur, Merlin enchants Pellinore into a deep sleep. The magician then caught up the king and rode forth on the knight's horse saving him from danger.

Merlin Saves Arthur

Arthur is about to be slain by the great Knight Pellinore but as he raises his sword against Arthur,…

The place where King Henry VII was laid to rest.

Chapel and Throne of Henry VII

The place where King Henry VII was laid to rest.

"Charles I (1625-1649) was a far abler ruler than his father. He was a man of greater courage and more dignity of character, but he had been trained from infancy in the belief of his divine right to fule, and he chose ministers who encouraged him in this view and tried to apply it practically. Parliament was not disposed to be amiable after the wrongs it had suffered at the hands of James. In the first fifteen months of his reign two Parliaments were summoned and angrily dissolved; the first because it demanded that its grievances should be redressed before it granted the king the requisite supplies; the second because it impeached the king's minister, Buckingham. In the interval between the second and third Parliaments the king raised money by forced loans and benevolences, throwing into prison those who refused to comply with the illegal demands. Under the influence of Buckingham the king tried to divert the attention of his subjects from bad government at home by entering into a war with France; but the result was humiliating, and the king's minister was more hated than ever."—Colby, 1899

Charles I

"Charles I (1625-1649) was a far abler ruler than his father. He was a man of greater courage and more…

"Charles V ruled over wider dominions than any European sovereign since Charlemagne. He belonged to the famous house of Hapsburg, from which he inherited Austria."—Colby, 1899

Charles V

"Charles V ruled over wider dominions than any European sovereign since Charlemagne. He belonged to…

(1500-1558) Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain.

Charles V

(1500-1558) Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain.

(1500-1558) Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain.

Charles V

(1500-1558) Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain.

Chephren was an Egyptian pharaoh. His capital was at Memphis.

Egyptian Pharaoh Chephren

Chephren was an Egyptian pharaoh. His capital was at Memphis.

Prince of Wales, Edward VII, was the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India.

Albert Edward

Prince of Wales, Edward VII, was the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of…

"Frederick II (The Great, 1740-1786). The young Frederick had been brought up in a rough school. His father's strict training and brutal ways made his life miserable. He could not gratify his waste for study, nor enjoy any liberty of action. Heavy tasks were imposed upon him and he was scolded and punished for the slightest disobedience. Once he tried to escape, but the attempt failed and his tutor who had aided him was hanged. He himself narrowly escaped execution by the decree of a court-martial. The king's death released him from this tyranny and he now found himself the inheritor of a strong state and a splendid army. He was ambitious of military fame and wished to raise Prussia to the first place among European states."—Colby, 1899

Frederick the Great

"Frederick II (The Great, 1740-1786). The young Frederick had been brought up in a rough school. His…

"George III (1760-1815). The first two Hanoverian kings were ignorant of English politics and obliged to rely on their ministers. Moreover, they cared more for Hanover than for England. But George II had English ideas. He was born and educated in England, and he made up his mind that he would rule in the manner of the old kings. He tried to restore the power of the crown at the expense of Parliament. In private morals and social relations he was better than his predecessors, and his character inspired respect. He had the loftiest ideas of royal dignity, and the greater part of his reign was taken up with the struggles with Parliament. But though he had some good qualities, he was narrow-minded, ill-educated, and imprudent. During the first twenty-four years of his reign he managed to estrange his people, check the prosperity of the nation, and lose forever the American colonies. His reign therefore was disastrous. The details of the struggle with the American colonies and the rise of the United States to the foremost rank among nations do not properly fall within the scope of this work. It is sufficient here to state that by the treaty of 1783 England's control over the thirteen colonies was lost forever. During the latter part of the reign of George III he was incapacitated for ruling. He was stricken with insanity, and the government passed into the hands of the prince regent, afterwards George IV. The most interesting side of the reign from the point of view of general history is the relations of England with foreign powers and the part where she played in the wars that arose from the French Revolution."—Colby, 1899

George III, King of England

"George III (1760-1815). The first two Hanoverian kings were ignorant of English politics and obliged…

Henry III is one of the least-known British monarchs, considering the great length of his reign. He was also the first child monarch in English royal history.

Henry III of Winchester

Henry III is one of the least-known British monarchs, considering the great length of his reign. He…

Known greatly as the king of hearts, or the man of ruthless wonder, Henry was born in Pembroke Castle, Wales, in 1457, Henry VII was the only son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort.

Henry VII

Known greatly as the king of hearts, or the man of ruthless wonder, Henry was born in Pembroke Castle,…

"Henry VIII (1509-1547) came to the throne in 1509, inheriting a vast treasure which he owed to the avarice of his father. A young and active man, he was ambitious in the early part of his reign for military distinction and several times he took part in the wars on the continent. These wars gave England small glory and no practical advantage. The only brilliant military achievement of the reign was gained when Henry was abroad; this was the battle of Flodden Field in 1513, where the English defeated the Scotch army which was sent across the border to plunder the northern counties."—Colby, 1899

Henry VIII

"Henry VIII (1509-1547) came to the throne in 1509, inheriting a vast treasure which he owed to the…

King James I of England

King James I

King James I of England

All this time John Lacklands cruelty and savageness were making the whole kingdom miserable; and at last the great barons bear it no longer. They met together and agreed that they would make John swear to govern by the good old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came. The difficulty was to be sure of what these laws were, for most of the copies of them had been lost. However, Archbishop Langton and some of the wisest of the barons put together a set of laws-some copied, some recollected, some old, some new-but all such as to give the barons some control of the king, and hinder him from getting savage soldiers together to frighten people into doing whatever he chose to make them. These laws they called Magna Charta, or the great charter; and they all came in armor, and took John by surprise at Windsor. He came to meet them in a meadow named Runnymede, on the bank of the Thames, and there they force him to sign the charter, for which all Englishmen are grateful to them.

John's Anger after Signing Magna Charta

All this time John Lacklands cruelty and savageness were making the whole kingdom miserable; and at…

An Assyrian King and his chief Minister.

Assyrian King and his Chief Minster

An Assyrian King and his chief Minister.

King Henry was a builder of beautiful churches. Westminster Abby, as it is now, was one. And he was charitable to the poor that, when he had his children weighed, he gave their weight in gold and silver in alms. But he gave to everyone who asked, and so always wanted money; and sometimes his men could get nothing for the king and queen to eat, but by going and taking sheep and poultry from the poor farmers around; so that things were nearly as bad as under William Rufus-because the king was so foolishly good-natured. The Pope was always sending for money, too; and the king tried to raise it in ways that, according to Magna Carta, he had sworn not to do. His foreign friends told him that if he minded Magna Carta he would be a poor creature-not like a king who might do all he pleased; and whenever he listened to them he broke the laws of Magna Carta. Then, when his barons complained and frightened him, he swore again to keep them; so that nobody could trust him, and his weakness was almost as bad for the kingdom as John's wickedness. When they could bear it no longer, the barons all met him at the council, which was called the Parliament, from a French word meaning talk. This time they came in armor, binging all their fighting men, and declared that he had broken his word so often that they should appoint some of their own number to watch him, and hinder his doing anything against the laws he had sworn to observe, or from getting money from the people without their consent.

King Henry and his Barons

King Henry was a builder of beautiful churches. Westminster Abby, as it is now, was one. And he was…

"The age of Louis XIV. during the reign of Louis XIV, the son and successor of Louis XIII (1643-1715), which lasted over seventy years, France was the leading nation of Europe. In some respects it was a brilliant period. The magnificence of the French court, the splendor of Paris, and the proud position of France in Europe were characteristics of the time. Literature flourished under the patronage of the court, and some of the greatest of the French writers lived in this reign. A striking characteristic of the time was the absolute belief of the subjects in the divine power of the king. Louis XIV was the most conspicuous type of an absolute monarch. He was the source of all power and glory."—Colby, 1899

Louis XIV

"The age of Louis XIV. during the reign of Louis XIV, the son and successor of Louis XIII (1643-1715),…

Costume of the time of Louis XIV

Louis XIV

Costume of the time of Louis XIV

The Adoration of the Magi is a pen-drawing that was created by German artist Albrecht Dürer in 1524. It represents the three Magis who are the Kings, subjects in the Nativity Scene of Jesus in Christian art.

Adoration of the Magi

The Adoration of the Magi is a pen-drawing that was created by German artist Albrecht Dürer in…

As a kind of joke, John, King Henry's youngest son, had been called Lackland, because he had nothing when his brothers each had some great dukedom. The name suited him only too well before the end of his life. The English made him king at once. Richard had never had any children, but his brother Geoffery, who was older than John had left a son named Arthur, who was about twelve years old, and who rightly the Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou. King Philip, who was always glad to vex whoever was king of England, took Arthur under his protection, and promised to get Normandy out of John's hands. However, John had a meeting with him and persuaded him to desert Arthur, and marry his son Louis to John's own niece, Blanche, who had a chance of being queen of part of Spain. Still Arthur lived at the French King's court, and when he was sixteen years old, Philip helped him to raise an army and go to try his fortune against his uncle. He laid siege to Mirabeau, a town where his grandmother, Queen Eleanor, was living. John, who was then in Normandy, hurried to her rescue, beat Arthur's army, made him prisoner and carried him off, first to Romen, and then to the strong castle of Falaise. Nobody quite knows what was done to him there. The governor, Hubert de Burgh, once found him fighting hard, though with no weapon but a stool, to defend himself from some ruffians who had been sent to put out his eyes. Hubert saved him from these men, but shortly after this good man was sent elsewhere by the king, and John came himself to Falaise. Arthur was never seen alive again, and it is believed that John took him out in a boat in the river at night, stabbed him with his own hand, and threw his body in the river.

Murder of Prince Arthur

As a kind of joke, John, King Henry's youngest son, had been called Lackland, because he had nothing…

"Peter the Great. This prince is one of the most extraordinary figures in history. As a boy he showed a great eagerness for knowledge in departments which were not generally attractive to the members of royal families. He cared nothing for books, but took a keen interest in mechanical devices, in carpentering, and especially in the making and sailing of boats. He was impatient of discipline and opposition and showed at an early age serious defects of temper. In fact, except for his restless and inquisitive spirit, there was little about him to suggest the qualities which afterwards made him famous. His half-sister, Sophia, plotted against him, and at one time, through a palace revolution, his life was actually endagered. He was obliged to share the throne with his feeble-minded half-brother, and at first his position was insecure. In 1689, however, Peter, discovering the plots of Sophia, raised a party against her, took the power out of her hands, and shut her up in a convent. Ivan was wholly incompetent to rule, and from this time forth Peter, though now only seventeen years of age, ruled the state."—Colby, 1899

Peter the Great

"Peter the Great. This prince is one of the most extraordinary figures in history. As a boy he showed…

Ramesses III as Osiris, between the goddesses Nephthys and Isis.

Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III

Ramesses III as Osiris, between the goddesses Nephthys and Isis.

During one of King Richard the Lion-Heart's crusades the city of Acre was taken over and a prince, Leopold, Duke of Austria, set up his banner on the walls. Richard did not think it ought to be there: he pulled it up and threw it down into the ditch, asking the duke how he durst take the honors of a king.

Richard Removing the Archduke's Banner

During one of King Richard the Lion-Heart's crusades the city of Acre was taken over and a prince, Leopold,…

A script wrapped in a floral vine

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