Leaves - simple; alternate; edge entire. Outline - long and narrow. Apex - pointed and bristle-tipped. Base - pointed. Leaf - three to six inches long; one to two inches wide; smooth and shining above; somewhat downy beneath; thick and stiff. Bark - smooth and unbroken. Acorns - small, nearly stemless. Cup - shallow. Nuts - rounded; about one half inch in diameter; bitter. October. Found - in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania (Porter), westward to Southeastern Iowa, and southward. Most common west of the Alleghany Mountains.  General Information - A tree thirty to fifty feet high, with poor wood, that is used at the West for shingles and clapboards.  Note: Of the nine hybrids that have been recognized, most are outside of our limits or entirely local. Mention need be made only of tow: Q. heterophylla, Michaux ("Bartram's Oak"). Staten Island and New Jersey to Delaware and North Carolina; Q. Rudkini, Britt., New Jersey. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.   The Oak "Live thy Life, Young and old, Like yon oak, Bright in spring, Living gold; Summer-rich, Then; and then Autumn-changed, Sober-hued Gold again. All his leaves fall'n at length, Look, he stands, Trunk and bough, Naked strength.: Alfred (Lord) Tennyson, 1889.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge entire. Outline - long and narrow. Apex - pointed and bristle-tipped.…

This shows two leaves of Spanish Oak, Quercus digitata, (Keeler, 1915).

Spanish Oak Leaves

This shows two leaves of Spanish Oak, Quercus digitata, (Keeler, 1915).

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge lobed (the edges of the lobes mostly entire, but often with one to three teeth toward the ends). Outline - abruptly spreading above the middle. Base - rounded, sometimes slightly unequal. Ends of the lobes and of the few teeth, when present, sharp and bristle-tipped. Leaf - about three to six inches long; dark, dull green, and rough above; below, grayish and downy. Lobes, usually three, sometimes four or five, mostly long and narrow, especially the end one. Bark - of trunk, blackish and deeply grooved. Acorns - nearly stemless. Cup - shallow, somewhat top-shaped. Nut, about one third to one half inch long, rounded, sometimes slightly hollowed at the apex, bitter. October. Found - in sandy soils and barrens, from Long Island southward; in the Northern States, only near the coat and rare. General Information - A tree about twenty to thirty feet high in New Jersey; in the South, seventy to eighty feet; with wood of slight value except for fuel. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge lobed (the edges of the lobes mostly entire, but often with one to…

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge quite deeply wavy-toothed. Outline - reverse egg-shape or oval. Apex - blunt-pointed. Base - pointed. Leaf - five to eight inches long; smooth, and rather bright green above; whitish-downy beneath, becoming almost silvery-white; often with a rather deep hollow just below the middle, and usually abruptly spreading above; the teeth unequal, longest toward the middle of the leaf, sometimes almost long enough to be called lobes; mostly rounded at the apex, but sometimes ending in a hard point; the main ribs prominent and rust-colored. Bark - of trunk, grayish-white, dividing into large, flat scales. Acorns - usually in pairs on a stem one and a quarter to three inches long. Cup - rounded, rather thin, rough, with sharp scales; the upper scales bristle-tipped, forming a border, or sometimes a fringe, along the edge; slightly downy within. Nut - one inch or less in length, egg-shape; sweet. October. Found - from Southern Maine and the Upper St. Lawrence to Southeastern Iowa and Western Missouri, south to Delaware and along the Alleghany Mountains to Northern Georgia; along borders of streams and in swamps, in deep, rich soil. Its finest growth is in the region of the Great Lakes. General Information - A tree thirty to sixty feet high or more, with wood similar in value to that of the White Oak. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge quite deeply wavy-toothed. Outline - reverse egg-shape or oval. Apex…

The leaf of a white oak tree.

White Oak Leaf

The leaf of a white oak tree.

The leaf of a white oak tree.

White Oak Leaf

The leaf of a white oak tree.

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge lobed; (edge of the lobes entire or sometimes coarsely notched and hollowed at their ends.) Outline - reverse egg-shape. Apex - of lobes, rounded. Base - wedge-shape. Leaf - quite variable in size and shape; four to seven inches long; smooth; pale beneath; the lobes oftenest five to nine, long and narrow, and sometimes widening toward the end, but at other times only three to five, short and broad, and radiating obliquely from the middle rub. Bark - of trunk, slightly roughened (comparatively smooth for an oak), light-gray; in older trees loosening in large, thin scales; the inner bark white. Acorns - usually in pairs on a stem one fourth of an inch or more in length. Cup - rounded saucer-shape, not scaly, but rough and warty and much shorter than the nut. Nut - three fourths to one inch long, slightly egg-shape or oval; brown, sweet, and edible. October. Found - from Ontario and the valley of the St. Lawrence southward to Florida, and westward to Southeastern Minnesota, Arkansas, and Texas. Its finest growth is on the western slopes of the Alleghany Mountains, and in the Ohio basin. General Information - A noble tree, sixty to eighty feet or more in height, with hard, touch wood of very great value in many kinds of manufacturing, and for fuel. The withered, light-brown leaves often cling throughout the winter. The "oak-apples" or "galls" often found on oak-trees are the work of 'gall-flies" and their larvae. When green tiny worms will usually be found at their centre. Quaint reference is made to these galls in Gerardes' "Herbal": "Oak-apples being broken in sunder before they have an hole thorough them do fore shewe the sequell of the yeere. If they conteine in them a flie, then warre insueth; if a creeping worme, then scarcitie of victuals; if a running spider, then followeth great sickness or mortalitie." The oak, probably more than any other tree, has been associated with workshop of the gods. The "Talking Tree" of the sanctuary in Dodona (the oldest of all the Hellenic sanctuaries, and second in repute only to that at Delphi) was an oak. Oak groves were favorite places for altars and temples of Jupiter. The Druids worshipped under the oak-trees. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge lobed; (edge of the lobes entire or sometimes coarsely notched and…

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge entire. Outline - long and narrow. Apex - pointed and bristle-tipped. Base - pointed. Leaf - three to four inches long (sometimes five); one half to seven eighths of an inch wide; rather thick and stiff; smooth and shining above; somewhat dull beneath; very young leaves, light green above and soft, white-downy beneath. Bark - thick and smoothish. Acorns - small. nearly stemless. Cup - rather shallow, saucer-shaped, or somewhat rounded top-shape. Nut - about three eighths of an inch long, rounded, brown; Kernel, bitter and bright orange. October. Found - from Staten Island and New Jersey southward along the coast to Northeastern Florida and the Gulf States, and from Kentucky southwestward. Usually on the borders of swamps and in sandy woods. General Information - a tree thirty to fifty feet high, with poor wood. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge entire. Outline - long and narrow. Apex - pointed and bristle-tipped.…

"Outline of tangential section of wood of oak, to show frequency of medullary rays. The section is 1 mm. square. The number of rays shown is below the average for woodyplants." -Stevens, 1916

Oak Wood

"Outline of tangential section of wood of oak, to show frequency of medullary rays. The section is 1…

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge evenly and sharply (or sometime bluntly) toothed. Outline - very narrow oval (or sometimes wide). Apex - taper-pointed. Base - pointed or blunt. Leaf/Stem - three fourths to one inch long. Leaf - usually about five to seven inches long, by one and one half to two inches wide, but sometimes so wide as to resemble Q. prinus), from which, however, it is distinguished by its think bark. Of all the "chestnut-oak: leaves it most closely resembles the chestnut leaf. It is smooth above, whitish and minutely downy beneath. Bark - of trunk, light, flaky, and thin. Acorn - nearly stemless. Cup - about five twelfths to seven twelfths of an inch across; rounded; thin, with very small, closely pressed scales. Nut - seven twelfths to nine twelfths of an inch long; egg-shape or narrow oval, light brown, about one third covered by cup; sweet. October. Found - from Massachusetts to Delaware, along the mountains to Northern Alabama and westward. Very common west of the Alleghany Mountains. General Information - A tree forty to sixty feet high, with strong and durable wood. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge evenly and sharply (or sometime bluntly) toothed. Outline - very narrow…