Illustration of a single crusader, dressed in chain mail and a cross-covered tunic kneeling on one knee with his hands clasped in prayer. His spear with Christian banner are leaning against his shoulder. The banner has two crosses on it. He a sword in a scabbard attached to his belt. Greaves protect his shins and sabatons protect his feet.

A Crusader from the First Crusade Kneels in Prayer

Illustration of a single crusader, dressed in chain mail and a cross-covered tunic kneeling on one knee…

"A Dervish is a Mohammedan monk or religious fanatic, who makes a vow of poverty and austerity of life. There are several orders, some living in monasteries, some as hermits, and some as wandering mendicants. Some, called dancing dervishes, are accustomed to spin or whirl themselves round for hours at a time, till they work themselves into a state of frenzy, when they are believed to be inspired."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Dervish

"A Dervish is a Mohammedan monk or religious fanatic, who makes a vow of poverty and austerity of life.…

"There are scores of men in long gowns, with white, red, blue, or green turbans about their heads." —Carpenter, 1902

Turkish men

"There are scores of men in long gowns, with white, red, blue, or green turbans about their heads."…

(570-632) Arabian prophet and founder of Islam.

Mohammed

(570-632) Arabian prophet and founder of Islam.

An illustration of the Mohammedan emblems.

Mohammedan Emblem

An illustration of the Mohammedan emblems.

A Saracen on horseback.

The Saracen

A Saracen on horseback.

A political and religious leader of Muslim tribes. He lead an anti-Russian resistance in the Caucasian War.

Shamyl

A political and religious leader of Muslim tribes. He lead an anti-Russian resistance in the Caucasian…

"These are two Turkish women, who have their heads and faces wrapped up." —Carpenter, 1902

Turkish women

"These are two Turkish women, who have their heads and faces wrapped up." —Carpenter, 1902