A poster of ancient Babylonia: Chaldea, Assyria, Persia, soldiers, religion, writing, and structures.

Babylonia Poster

A poster of ancient Babylonia: Chaldea, Assyria, Persia, soldiers, religion, writing, and structures.

"Ancient Persian Bag-pipes" — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1910

Ancient Persian Bagpipe

"Ancient Persian Bag-pipes" — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1910

Battle fought between two brothers, Cyrus the Younger and Arsaces. Cyrus managed to collect eleven thousand Greek soldiers, and went into battle for the Persian throne his elder brother had recently occupied.

Battle of Cunaxa

Battle fought between two brothers, Cyrus the Younger and Arsaces. Cyrus managed to collect eleven thousand…

An example of cuneform writing.

Cuneform Writing

An example of cuneform writing.

Darius, the Persian king. Above, the symbol of Ormuzd.

Darius

Darius, the Persian king. Above, the symbol of Ormuzd.

"Here [Darius] was assassinated by Bessus, the satrap of Bactria. He was discovered by Alexander in a dying condition by the roadside. He asked for a cup of water, thanked the giver, and died. And with him died the Empire of the Persians."—Ridpath, 1885

Alexander Discovers the Body of Darius

"Here [Darius] was assassinated by Bessus, the satrap of Bactria. He was discovered by Alexander in…

"The Eagle is an emblem in heraldry, war, and legend. The eagle, borne upon a spear, was used by the Persians as a standard in the battle of Cunaxa, B. C. 401. The Romans used eagles of silver, or more rarely of gold, carried in the same way as standards. The Napoleon dynasty of France also adopted the eagle as their symbol. A double-headed eagle is the emblem of Russia, Austria, and Prussia."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

French Eagle

"The Eagle is an emblem in heraldry, war, and legend. The eagle, borne upon a spear, was used by the…

"The Eagle is an emblem in heraldry, war, and legend. The eagle, borne upon a spear, was used by the Persians as a standard in the battle of Cunaxa, B. C. 401. The Romans used eagles of silver, or more rarely of gold, carried in the same way as standards. The Napoleon dynasty of France also adopted the eagle as their symbol. A double-headed eagle is the emblem of Russia, Austria, and Prussia."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

German Eagle

"The Eagle is an emblem in heraldry, war, and legend. The eagle, borne upon a spear, was used by the…

"Part of the Rock-cut facade of the Tomb of Darius." —D'Anvers, 1895

Rock-cut facade

"Part of the Rock-cut facade of the Tomb of Darius." —D'Anvers, 1895

In heraldry, the griffin is a fabulous animal, with the head and forefeet of an eagle, and the body, hind legs, and tail of a lion. The head is represented with pricked ears, symbolical of its vigilance. In mythology, the griffin was a creature similar in form to the griffin of heraldry, which was supposed to find its especial function in watching over hidden treasure, especially in Scythia. It was dedicated to the sun-god Apollo, whose chariot appears in early art as drawn by griffins. It was a favorite ornamental 'theme' in ancient Babylonian and Persian art, and is also found in a similar way on art objects of the Phoenicians, the Mycenæan civilization, and the ancient Greeks. The Romans and art-workers of the renaissance used it as a purely decorative device.

Griffin

In heraldry, the griffin is a fabulous animal, with the head and forefeet of an eagle, and the body,…

Prince and Princess flying on enchanted horse.

Horse

Prince and Princess flying on enchanted horse.

"A representation of a very early double stater of Miletus, in Ionia, of which the type is the lion's head, derived from Persia and Assyria, and associated with the worship of Cybele, a symbol which is continued in the later coinage of Miletus." — Chambers, 1881

Miletus Coin

"A representation of a very early double stater of Miletus, in Ionia, of which the type is the lion's…

"Now when Mordecai knew all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry; and he came even before the king's gate: for none might enter within the king's gate clothed with sackcloth." Esther 4:1-2
<p>Mordecai stands at the king's gate and cries out at the news that all the Jews of Persia were to be destroyed.

Mordecai Cries out at the City Gates

"Now when Mordecai knew all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes,…

Cut from an ancient stone, the ram and goat with one horn are symbols for Persia and Macedonia, respectively.  This engraving may have been done during the time of Alexander the Great.

Persia and Macedonia

Cut from an ancient stone, the ram and goat with one horn are symbols for Persia and Macedonia, respectively.…

"Ancient Persia was among the great empires that figure in the early history of mankind. Little of their history is known till the conqueror Cyrus ascended the throne, about the year, about 559 B.C." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Ancient Persia

"Ancient Persia was among the great empires that figure in the early history of mankind. Little of their…

Persian architectural details.

Persian Architecture

Persian architectural details.

Doorway at Persepolis.

Persian Architecture

Doorway at Persepolis.

Architrave and cornice from a Persian tomb.

Persian Architecture

Architrave and cornice from a Persian tomb.

Column base at Persepolis.

Persian Architecture

Column base at Persepolis.

Volutes of a capital at Persepolis.

Persian Architecture

Volutes of a capital at Persepolis.

Persian stair parapet.

Persian Architecture

Persian stair parapet.

An illustration of a Persian man.

Persian Man

An illustration of a Persian man.

Persian rossete and palm motive.

Persian Ornament

Persian rossete and palm motive.

The inner courtyard of the Persian Palace.

Persian Palace

The inner courtyard of the Persian Palace.

A Persian man weaves a carpet, an important part of Persian art and culture.

Persian Rug Weaver

A Persian man weaves a carpet, an important part of Persian art and culture.

Prince mounting his horse.

Prince

Prince mounting his horse.

A soldier of the Persian army.

Persian Soldier

A soldier of the Persian army.

An image depicting an ancient city of the Persian, Parthian, and Elamite empires of Iran.

Ancient Susa

An image depicting an ancient city of the Persian, Parthian, and Elamite empires of Iran.

"The temple of Diana was the chief glory of the city. The style was Grecian. The length of the ground-plan was four-hundred and twenty-five feet and the breadth two-hundred and twenty feet. The structure was thus four times as large as the Pantheon at Athens. The statue of the goddess was one of the finest works of art ever produced. It was wrought of ivory and gold, and was a marvel of costliness and beauty. The temple was decorated with sculptures by Praxiteles and one of the masterpieces of Apelles. A representation of the temple was stamped on the coins and medals of the city."&mdash;Ridpath, 1885

Temple of Diana at Ephesus

"The temple of Diana was the chief glory of the city. The style was Grecian. The length of the ground-plan…

The return of Xerxes to Persia.

Xerxes

The return of Xerxes to Persia.