"A piston and rod shown with attached weight. The valve, A, can be opened and closed as needed so that the piston can be moved." —Hallock 1905

Piston and Rod

"A piston and rod shown with attached weight. The valve, A, can be opened and closed as needed so that…

"The piston rods are furnished with racks, or teeth, and are worked by the toothed wheel a, which is turned backwards and forwards, by the lever and handle b. The exhaustion pipe c, leads to the plate on which the receiver stants. The valves v, n, u, and m, all open upwards." —Comstock, 1850

Air Pump

"The piston rods are furnished with racks, or teeth, and are worked by the toothed wheel a, which is…

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice to be opened or closed by the valve b, as the piston a is moved up or down in its barrel. The valve being fastened by a hinge on the upper side, on pushing the piston down, it will open by the pressure of the air against it, and the air will make its escape. But when the piston is at the bottom of the barrel, on attempting to raise it again, towards the top, the valve is closed by the force of the external air acting upon it. If, therefore, the piston be drawn up in this state, it must be against the pressure of the atmosphere, the whole weight of which, to an extent equal to the diameter of the piston, must be lifted, while there will remain a vacuum or void space below it in the tube. if the piston be only three inches in diameter, it will require the full strength of a man to draw it to the top of the barrel, and when raised, if suddenly let go, it will be forced back again by the weight of the air, and will stright the bottom with great violence." —Comstock, 1850

Atmospheric Pressure

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice…

"Suppose a to be a long tube, with the piston b so nicely fitted to its inside, as to work air tight. If the lower end of the tube be dipped into water, and the piston drawn up by pulling at the handle c, the water will follow the piston so closely, as to be in contact with its surface, and apparently to be drawn up by the piston, as though the whole was one solid body. If the tube be thirty-five feet long, the water will continue to follow the piston, until it comes to the height of about thirty-three feet, where it will stop, and if the piston be drawn up still farther, the water will not follow it, but will remain stationary, the space from this height between the piston and the water, being left a void space or vacuum." —Comstock, 1850

Barometer

"Suppose a to be a long tube, with the piston b so nicely fitted to its inside, as to work air tight.…

"Cylinders showing piston in place and connected to crankshaft. Gasoline vapor is exploded in the cylinders. This pushes the piston down, and as the piston is connected to the crankshaft it starts the crankshaft turning. The piston and the rod that connect it to the crankshaft are just like the feet and limbs of any one riding a bicycle." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 03: Cylinders Showing Piston and Crankshaft

"Cylinders showing piston in place and connected to crankshaft. Gasoline vapor is exploded in the cylinders.…

"The gears or 'cogwheels' are for running the fan, the pump and other parts." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 04: Cogwheels

"The gears or 'cogwheels' are for running the fan, the pump and other parts." -Bodmer, 1917

"This machine consists essentially of a horizontal piston and cylinder engine fixed upon a platform carried upon four wheels, which are coupled together by side rods, so that on motion being communicated by means of a mitre wheel in the hind axle, it can be moved forward by hand. On the forward end of the frame are two bosses forming the centres for a pair of bell cranks or bent levers places close to the ground, and facing in opposite directions, either one of which can be connected with the piston rod. The outer arm of each lever carries a square socket, into which is fixed the pick, which has two cutting heads, one placed a little in front of the other so as to cut to the whole depth at one operation." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Coal-cutting Machine

"This machine consists essentially of a horizontal piston and cylinder engine fixed upon a platform…

"Let P be a piston, fitted, air-tight, to the cylinder AB. As the piston is driven down, the air, unable to escape, is compressed; as it is drawn back, the air expands." —Quackenbos 1859

Compressibility of Air

"Let P be a piston, fitted, air-tight, to the cylinder AB. As the piston is driven down, the air, unable…

"If the strong tube, or barrel, be smooth, and equal on the inside, and there be fitted to it the solid piston, or plug a, so as to work up and down, air tight, by the handle b, the air in the barrel may be compressed into a space a hundred times less than its usual bulk. Indeed, if the vessel be of sufficient strength, and the force employed sufficiently great, its bulk may be lessened a thousand times, or in any proportion, according to the force employed; and if kept in this state for years, it will regain its former bulk the instant the pressure is removed." —Comstock, 1850

Compression Experiment

"If the strong tube, or barrel, be smooth, and equal on the inside, and there be fitted to it the solid…

"The operation of the condenser is the reverse of that of the air pump, and is a much more simple machine. The air pump, will deprive a vessel of its ordinary quantity of air. The condenser, on the contrary, will double or treble the ordinary quantity of air in a close vessel according to the force employed. This instrument consists of a pump barrel and piston, a, a stop-cock b, and the vessel c furnished with a valve opening downwards. The orifice d is to admit the air, when the piston is drawn up to the top of the barrel." —Comstock, 1850

Condenser

"The operation of the condenser is the reverse of that of the air pump, and is a much more simple machine.…

"Air is pumped down through shaft A through a downward opening valve into a given chamber. Connector V is able to be screwed into any strong vessel where it is desired to condense air." —Quackenbos 1859

Condenser

"Air is pumped down through shaft A through a downward opening valve into a given chamber. Connector…

This figure consists of three pumps, the piston rods of which are jointed to three cranks on a horizontal axle, by means of three connecting rods.

Connected Pumps.

This figure consists of three pumps, the piston rods of which are jointed to three cranks on a horizontal…

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its double action, it is necessary to provide, at each end of the cylinder, a means of admission of steam from the boiler, and of escape for the steam to the condenser. Hence the double action, which means that the piston is both raised and depressed by the force of steam. For this purpose, a steam box is fixed to each end of the cylinder, communicating, in the one case with the upper, in the other with the lower, surface of the piston. B is the upper, and and B' the lower, steam box. Each of these boxes is furnished with two valves." —Comstock, 1850

Double-acting Cylinder

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its…

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its double action, it is necessary to provide, at each end of the cylinder, a means of admission of steam from the boiler, and of escape for the steam to the condenser. Hence the double action, which means that the piston is both raised and depressed by the force of steam. For this purpose, a steam box is fixed to each end of the cylinder, communicating, in the one case with the upper, in the other with the lower, surface of the piston. B is the upper, and and B' the lower, steam box. Each of these boxes is furnished with two valves." —Comstock, 1850

Double-acting Cylinder

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its…

"A section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, fitted with a valve v provided with three pistons."—Finley, 1917

Valve casing of a double-column hammer

"A section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, fitted with a valve v provided with three…

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive force of steam as a motive power. It is a real heat-engine, transforming heat into mechanical energy." — Avery, 1895

Steam engine

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive…

"Used a boiler to produce steam, chambers to condense it, and drive the pistons of the engine." —Quackenbos 1859

Watt's Double-Acting Condensing Steam-Engine

"Used a boiler to produce steam, chambers to condense it, and drive the pistons of the engine." —Quackenbos…

"The operation of the force-pump is similar to that of the suction-pump. The outlet-valve generally opens from the cylinder, the piston being made solid." — Avery, 1895

Force pump

"The operation of the force-pump is similar to that of the suction-pump. The outlet-valve generally…

"In the forcing-pump atmospheric pressure plays but a small part. There is no valve in the piston c, but the water raised through the suction-pipe a, and the valve g, is forced by each depression of the piston up through the pipe e e, which is furnished with a valve to prevent the return of the fluid." — Wells, 1857

Forcing-Pump

"In the forcing-pump atmospheric pressure plays but a small part. There is no valve in the piston c,…

"The pump barrel, a, b, is represented as divided lengthwise, in order to show the inside. The piston, c, is fitted so accurately to the barrel, as to work up and down water tight; both barrel and piston being made of iron. The thing to be broken or pressed, is laid on the flat surface, i, there being above this, a strong frame to meet the pressure, not shown in the figure. The small forcing pump, of which d is the piston, and h, the lever by which it is worked, is also made of iron." —Comstock, 1850

Hydraulic Press

"The pump barrel, a, b, is represented as divided lengthwise, in order to show the inside. The piston,…

"The simple outline of the atmospheric engine. Its mode of operation is as follows. Steam is admitted from the boiler into the cylinder, through the tube l, by means of a regulating cock, e, which is worked by a handle outside the boiler; the pressure of the atmosphere above the piston being thus balanced by the force of the steam beneath it, the extremity of the lever beam to whch the piston is attached is elevated by proportionate weights, w, attached to the pump-rod, and the piston is drawn to the top of the cylinder, the other extremity of the beam being depressed." —Comstock, 1850

Newcomens Engine

"The simple outline of the atmospheric engine. Its mode of operation is as follows. Steam is admitted…

"Its mechanism may be understood by the means of the subjoined figure, B represents the end of the beam, which is pulled downward, and pushed upward, by the motion of the piston-rod R P; the motion of B is in the direction of the dotted curve; that of R P is rectilinear." —Comstock, 1850

Parallel Motion

"Its mechanism may be understood by the means of the subjoined figure, B represents the end of the beam,…

"...let the area of the piston a be 1 square inch; of b, 40 square inches. According to Pascal's law, 1 pound placed on a will balance 40 pounds placed on b." —Hallock 1905

Pascal's Law and Water Pressure

"...let the area of the piston a be 1 square inch; of b, 40 square inches. According to Pascal's law,…

"The cylinder covers are also made hollow to permit a circulation of live steam. A cylinder having the annular space (A) filled with steam is said to be jacketed. A liner, L, is often used in jacketed cylinders." —Derr, 1911

Jacketing Piston to Reduce Heat Loss

"The cylinder covers are also made hollow to permit a circulation of live steam. A cylinder having the…

A piston system from a quadruple expansion engine showing the movement of steam. Steam first enters the first piston, then expanded into the first intermediate piston. This pushes the piston down, then the steam enters the second intermediate to push the piston up. The steam then enters the low piston, where the steam exits the system.

Quadruple Expansion Engine Piston

A piston system from a quadruple expansion engine showing the movement of steam. Steam first enters…

"The tightly fitted piston at the top of a glass vessel of water is driven down. The contained liquid is compressed and the pressure equally distributed through the glass and the water flows out of the tubes along the sides." —Quackenbos 1859

Pressure of Liquids

"The tightly fitted piston at the top of a glass vessel of water is driven down. The contained liquid…

"Let the are of the piston a be 20 square inches; of b, 7 sq. in.; of c, 1 sq. in.; of d, 6 sq. in.; of e, 8 sq. in; and of f, 4 sq. in. If... a force of five pounds be applied at c, a pressure of five pounds per square inch will be transmitted in all directions, and in order that there shall be no movement, the required pressure must be applied by all the other pistons in proportion." —Hallock 1905

Water Pressure Demonstration

"Let the are of the piston a be 20 square inches; of b, 7 sq. in.; of c, 1 sq. in.; of d, 6 sq. in.;…

"The common pump consists of a hollow tube, the lower part of which, descending into the water, is called the suction-pipe, and the upper part, b, the battel or cylinder; of a spout, s, at the top of the cylinder; of an air-tight priston, which works up and down in the cylinder; and of two valves, both opening upwards, one of which, g, is placed at the top of the suction-pipe, and the other, p, in the piston." — Wells, 1857

Pump

"The common pump consists of a hollow tube, the lower part of which, descending into the water, is called…

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves, the pressure of the descending piston forces the liquid up valves I and J into container H and finally out of hose L." —Quackenbos 1859

Fire Engine Pump

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves,…

"As the piston ascends, as shown in the left-hand figure, the pressure of the atmosphere forces the water up the suction pipe P; the water opens the suction valve V and flows into the pump cylinder. When the piston moves down, as shown in the right-hand figure, the suction valve is closed and the delivery valve V' opened. The water in the pump cylinder is now forced up the delivery pipe P'." —Hallock 1905

Forcing Pump

"As the piston ascends, as shown in the left-hand figure, the pressure of the atmosphere forces the…

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into the chamber, K which builds pressure from condensing air. Tube I leads to a manual release jet." —Quackenbos 1859

Forcing Pump

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into…

A mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction

Piston Type Pump

A mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction

"The action does not differ in any way from that of the piston force pump. During the up stroke of the plunger, the suction valve is open and the delivery valve is closed; during the down stroke, the suction valve is closed and the delivery valve is open." —Hallock 1905

Plunger Pump

"The action does not differ in any way from that of the piston force pump. During the up stroke of the…

"The stomach pump injects liquid into a poisoned person's stomach and then withdraws the liquid and poison mixture. Bulbs C and D contain valves that open and close depending if B is upright or inverted." —Quackenbos 1859

Stomach Pump

"The stomach pump injects liquid into a poisoned person's stomach and then withdraws the liquid and…

An illustration of Newcomen atmospheric steam engine. The boiler heats the water to build up steam in the piston. While the steam lever closes, the water is let in, and the piston compresses the steam to generate energy. The compressed steam turns to liquid, and opens the steam valve.

Newcomen Atmospheric Steam Engine

An illustration of Newcomen atmospheric steam engine. The boiler heats the water to build up steam in…

The illustration showing Watt's final steam engine design. The engine is fitted with series of rods to guide the in a straight line. James Watt and William Murdoch invented the throttle valve, centrifugal valve, regulator, and slide valve to improve on the steam engine.

Watt's Final Steam Engine Design

The illustration showing Watt's final steam engine design. The engine is fitted with series of rods…

"Place a bit of tinder in the cavity of the piston of the 'fire-syringe'. Put the piston into the open end of the cylinder and force it in, compressing the confined air as abruptly as possible. Promptly remove the piston. The tinder will probably be on fire." — Avery, 1895

Fire syringe

"Place a bit of tinder in the cavity of the piston of the 'fire-syringe'. Put the piston into the open…