"The air pump is an instrument for removing air from a given space. A closed vessel R is called the receiver, and the space that it encloses is that from which it is desired to remove the air. It is usually made of glass, and the edges are ground so as to be perfectly air-tight. When made in the form shown, it is called a bell-jar receiver." — Hallock, 1905

Air Pump

"The air pump is an instrument for removing air from a given space. A closed vessel R is called the…

"The air pump is an instrument for removing air from a given space. A closed vessel R is called the receiver, and the space that it encloses is that from which it is desired to remove the air. It is usually made of glass, and the edges are ground so as to be perfectly air-tight. When made in the form shown, it is called a bell-jar receiver." — Hallock, 1905

Air Pump

"The air pump is an instrument for removing air from a given space. A closed vessel R is called the…

"The air pump is an engine by which the air can be pumped out of a vessel, or withdrawn from it. The vessel so exhausted, is called a receive, and the space thus left in the vessel, after withdrawing the air, is called a vacuum. The principles on which the air pump is constructed are readily understood, and are the same in all instruments of this kind, though the form of the instrument itself is often considerably modified. Let R be a glass vessel, or receiver, closed at the top, and open at the bottom, standing on a perfectly smooth surface, which is called the plate of the air pump. Through thie plate is an aperture, which communicates with the inside of the receiver, and the barrel of the pump. The piston rod works air tight through the barrel. At the extremity of the barrel, there is a valve which opens upwards, and is closed as the piston rises." —Comstock, 1850

Air Pump

"The air pump is an engine by which the air can be pumped out of a vessel, or withdrawn from it. The…

"The piston rods are furnished with racks, or teeth, and are worked by the toothed wheel a, which is turned backwards and forwards, by the lever and handle b. The exhaustion pipe c, leads to the plate on which the receiver stants. The valves v, n, u, and m, all open upwards." —Comstock, 1850

Air Pump

"The piston rods are furnished with racks, or teeth, and are worked by the toothed wheel a, which is…

"The air pump is an instrument for removing a gas from a closed vessel, the essential parts are shown." -Avery 1895

Air Pump

"The air pump is an instrument for removing a gas from a closed vessel, the essential parts are shown."…

"Crank M raises and lowers the two pistons C and D. The valves allow only for air to be removed from chamber J with a cutoff valve at K. The mercury filled barometer L measures the pressure in J." —Quackenbos 1859

Double Barrel Air Pump

"Crank M raises and lowers the two pistons C and D. The valves allow only for air to be removed from…

A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries, or gases. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure; they only displace fluid, causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure. Pumps fall into five major groups: direct lift, displacement, velocity, buoyancy and gravity pumps, and their names describe the method for moving a fluid.

Mechanical Action Air Pump

A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries, or gases. A pump displaces a volume…

Air pump used for taking the air out of a vessel.

Single Barrel Air Pump

Air pump used for taking the air out of a vessel.

"An apparatus for the exhaustion, compression, or transmission of air."-Whitney, 1902

Air-pump

"An apparatus for the exhaustion, compression, or transmission of air."-Whitney, 1902

"A machine for remobing air out of any given vessel, or forcing it in." — Williams, 1889

Air-pump

"A machine for remobing air out of any given vessel, or forcing it in." — Williams, 1889

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected by a long narrow india-rubber tube, which must be sufficiently strong in the body (or strengthened by a linen coating) to stand an outward pressure of 1 to 1.5 atmospheres. A terminates below in a narrow vertical tube c, which is a few inched longer than the height of the barometer, and to the lower end of this tube the india-rubber tube is attached which connects A with B. To the upper end of A is soldered a glass two-way stop-cock, by turning which the vessel A can either be made to communicate through s and a hole in the hollow cock with the vessel to be exhausted." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected…

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected by a long narrow india-rubber tube, which must be sufficiently strong in the body (or strengthened by a linen coating) to stand an outward pressure of 1 to 1.5 atmospheres. A terminates below in a narrow vertical tube c, which is a few inched longer than the height of the barometer, and to the lower end of this tube the india-rubber tube is attached which connects A with B. To the upper end of A is soldered a glass two-way stop-cock, by turning which the vessel A can either be made to communicate through s and a hole in the hollow cock with the vessel to be exhausted." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected…

"This was invented in 1865 by H. Sprengel. The instrument, in its original (simplest) form, consists of a vertical capillary glass tube a of about 1 mm. bore, provided with a lateral branch b near its upper end, which latter, by an india-rubber join governable by a screw-clamp, communicates with a funnel. The lower end is bent into the shape of a hook, and dips into a pneumatic trough. The vessel to be exhausted is attached to b, and, in order to extract its gas contents, a properly regulated stream of mercury is allowed to fall through the vertical tube." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"This was invented in 1865 by H. Sprengel. The instrument, in its original (simplest) form, consists…

"A centrifugal pump differing from an ordinary centrifugal pumps in one feature only. The water rises through a suction pipe S, which divides so as to enter the pump wheel at the center on each side. The pump disk or wheel is very similar to a turbine wheel. it is keyed on a shaft driven by a belt on a fast and loose pulley arrangement at P. The water rotating in the pump disk presses outwards, and if the speed is sufficient a continuous flow is maintained through the pump and into the discharge pipe D. The special feature in this pump is that the water, discharged by the pump disk with a whirling velocity of not inconsiderable magnitude, is allowed to continue rotation in a chamber somewhat larger than the pump. The use of this whirlpool chamber was first suggested by Professor James Thomson." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Centrifugal Pump

"A centrifugal pump differing from an ordinary centrifugal pumps in one feature only. The water rises…

"It consists of a number of square pieces of board, or of thin iron, connected together through their centres by iron rods, so that they can have no lateral motion..The ascending side of this chain passes through a square box, to which these pieces or buckets are closely fitted..." -Comstock 1850

Chain Pump

"It consists of a number of square pieces of board, or of thin iron, connected together through their…

"Used to raise water with a continuous chain with evenly spaced circular plates. The plates exactly fit a hollow tube, G and H. When the wheels I, J are turned, they move the chain which carries water up the pipe into the collection reservoir." —Quackenbos 1859

Chain Pump

"Used to raise water with a continuous chain with evenly spaced circular plates. The plates exactly…

"The chain-pump consists of a tube or cylinder, the lower part of which is immersed in a well or reservoir, and the upper part enters the bottom of a cistern into which the water is to be raised. A chain is carried round a wheel at the top, and is furnished at equal distances with movable bottoms, which fit water-tight in the tube. As the wheel revolves, they successively enter the tube, and carry the water up before them, which is discharged into the cistern at the top of the tube." — Wells, 1857

Chain-Pump

"The chain-pump consists of a tube or cylinder, the lower part of which is immersed in a well or reservoir,…

"A valve in pumps with a single flap, hinged at one edge, and consisting of a plate of leather a little larger than the valve aperture. The valve box is generally one and a half times the diameter of the valve opening." — Williams, 1889

Clack-valve

"A valve in pumps with a single flap, hinged at one edge, and consisting of a plate of leather a little…

"The operation of the condenser is the reverse of that of the air pump, and is a much more simple machine. The air pump, will deprive a vessel of its ordinary quantity of air. The condenser, on the contrary, will double or treble the ordinary quantity of air in a close vessel according to the force employed. This instrument consists of a pump barrel and piston, a, a stop-cock b, and the vessel c furnished with a valve opening downwards. The orifice d is to admit the air, when the piston is drawn up to the top of the barrel." —Comstock, 1850

Condenser

"The operation of the condenser is the reverse of that of the air pump, and is a much more simple machine.…

"Air is pumped down through shaft A through a downward opening valve into a given chamber. Connector V is able to be screwed into any strong vessel where it is desired to condense air." —Quackenbos 1859

Condenser

"Air is pumped down through shaft A through a downward opening valve into a given chamber. Connector…

"The condensing pump is an instrument for compressing a gas into a closed vessel, as in pumping air into a pneumatic tire of a bicycle, or oxygen or hydrogen into the cylinders commonly used for stereopticon purposes, or charging water with carbon dioxide for sale as 'soda water'." -Avery 1895

Condensing Pump

"The condensing pump is an instrument for compressing a gas into a closed vessel, as in pumping air…

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water out of C. G is closed and cold water enters through I causing a vacuum drawing water up through F." —Quackenbos 1859

Savery's Engine

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water…

"The fire engine is a modification of the forcing pump. It consists of two such pumps, the pistons of which are moved by a lever whith equal arms, the common fulcrum being at C." -Comstock 1850

Fire Engine

"The fire engine is a modification of the forcing pump. It consists of two such pumps, the pistons of…

"The operation of the force-pump is similar to that of the suction-pump. The outlet-valve generally opens from the cylinder, the piston being made solid." — Avery, 1895

Force pump

"The operation of the force-pump is similar to that of the suction-pump. The outlet-valve generally…

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having a side pipe with a valve opening outwards, through which the water is forced to any height required, or against any pressure that may oppose it." -Marshall

Steam-engine Force Pump

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having…

"In the forcing-pump atmospheric pressure plays but a small part. There is no valve in the piston c, but the water raised through the suction-pipe a, and the valve g, is forced by each depression of the piston up through the pipe e e, which is furnished with a valve to prevent the return of the fluid." — Wells, 1857

Forcing-Pump

"In the forcing-pump atmospheric pressure plays but a small part. There is no valve in the piston c,…

This soap dispenser is a device that when triggered dispenses a set amount of soap.

Liquid Soap Fountain

This soap dispenser is a device that when triggered dispenses a set amount of soap.

"The pump barrel, a, b, is represented as divided lengthwise, in order to show the inside. The piston, c, is fitted so accurately to the barrel, as to work up and down water tight; both barrel and piston being made of iron. The thing to be broken or pressed, is laid on the flat surface, i, there being above this, a strong frame to meet the pressure, not shown in the figure. The small forcing pump, of which d is the piston, and h, the lever by which it is worked, is also made of iron." —Comstock, 1850

Hydraulic Press

"The pump barrel, a, b, is represented as divided lengthwise, in order to show the inside. The piston,…

"The Hydraulic Ram is a machine for raising water, and depending for its action on the impulse of flowing water. The water falling from a reservoir passes into a pipe or chamber <em>(b)</em>, at the end of which there is a ball valve <em>(c)</em>. The rush of supply water at first closes this, and the water finding no exit there acquires pressure enough to open another valve <em>(d)</em> and pass into an air-vessel placed over it <em>(f)</em>. The cessation of pressure at valve <em>c</em> allows it to fall again; an outrush of water takes place there, relieving valve <em>d</em>, which again closes. The pressure of the flowing water upon valve <em>c</em> once more closes this valve, and valve <em>d</em> again opens, and an additional quantity of water is forced into the air-vessel; and so on by a series of pulsations which send the water along the service pipe, and, in properly arranged machines, raise it to a very considerable height, although the impulse is dervied only from the fall of a few feet."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Hydraulic Ram

"The Hydraulic Ram is a machine for raising water, and depending for its action on the impulse of flowing…

"Grease the edges to make more sure of a tight joint, fit the hemispheres to each other, and exhaust the air with a pump. Close the stopcock, remove the hemispheres from the pump, attach the second handle, and, holding the hemispheres in different positions, try to pull them apart. When you are sure that the pressure that holds them together is exerted inall directions, place them under the receiver of the air pump, and exhaust the air from around them. The pressure seems to be removed, for the hemispheres fall apart of their own weight." -Avery 1895

Magdeburg Hemispheres

"Grease the edges to make more sure of a tight joint, fit the hemispheres to each other, and exhaust…

"An instrument of the pump kind for raising water, especially when that liquid is mixed with solid matter. It acts by the condensation of waste steam sent into a reservoir, the water rushing up into the vacuum formed by the condensation." -Marshall

Water Pulsometer

"An instrument of the pump kind for raising water, especially when that liquid is mixed with solid matter.…

"The common pump consists of a hollow tube, the lower part of which, descending into the water, is called the suction-pipe, and the upper part, b, the battel or cylinder; of a spout, s, at the top of the cylinder; of an air-tight priston, which works up and down in the cylinder; and of two valves, both opening upwards, one of which, g, is placed at the top of the suction-pipe, and the other, p, in the piston." &mdash; Wells, 1857

Pump

"The common pump consists of a hollow tube, the lower part of which, descending into the water, is called…

"A device for raising liquids or removing gas from a closed vessel." Foster, 1921. The image shows two types of pumps and their mechanisms: Fig. 1; a. barrel, b. piston, c. valve, d. reservoirs. Fig. 2; a. barrel, b. piston, c. valve in barrel, d. valve in stand pipe, e. reservoir, f. air chamber.

Pump

"A device for raising liquids or removing gas from a closed vessel." Foster, 1921. The image shows two…

A pump for compressing, removing, or forcing a flow of air.

Air Pump

A pump for compressing, removing, or forcing a flow of air.

"A curious combination of the atmospheric pump and the forcing pump, invented by Mr. Trevethick." -Comstock 1850

Atmospheric and Forcing Pump

"A curious combination of the atmospheric pump and the forcing pump, invented by Mr. Trevethick." -Comstock…

"The shaft A and B is attached to tubes, C. When the crank is turned, centrifugal force in the tubes draws the water up and into the circular trough, D. The water then collects and discharges out at E." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Centrifugal Pump

"The shaft A and B is attached to tubes, C. When the crank is turned, centrifugal force in the tubes…

"Some forms of centrifugal pump, however, have been designed for use with horse power and even for windmills."&mdash;Government Printing Office, 1897

Centrifugal Pump

"Some forms of centrifugal pump, however, have been designed for use with horse power and even for windmills."—Government…

This image is a centrifugal pump with one half of the casing removed. S is a hollow hub, a is a curved arm, also called a vane or wing, and are revolved with a high velocity of the arrow. The air between them is driven out by the discharge and pipe D. A centrifugal pump is a valuable instrument for raising water to enormous heights.

Centrifugal Pump

This image is a centrifugal pump with one half of the casing removed. S is a hollow hub, a is a curved…

"A Pump is a machine, engine, or device, consisting of an arrangement of a piston, cylinder, and valves, for raising water or other liquid to a higher level, or for compressing or exhausting air and other gases. There are numerous varieties of pumps differing more or less in construction, according to the purposes for which each is intended, but the most important are the suction pump, the lifting or lift pump, the force pump, and the centrifugal or rotary pump."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Chain Pump

"A Pump is a machine, engine, or device, consisting of an arrangement of a piston, cylinder, and valves,…

"This consists of a brass or iron barrel, A, containing at its upper part a hollow piston and valve opening upward. Below this there is another valve, also opening upward. The pipe and stockcock C, are for the purpose of letting the water from the barrel to the tube, which descends into the well." -Comstock 1850

Common Metalic Pump

"This consists of a brass or iron barrel, A, containing at its upper part a hollow piston and valve…

A machine used to keep blood and lymph flowing by pushing air through bands or sleeves that are placed on the arms or legs.

Compression Pump

A machine used to keep blood and lymph flowing by pushing air through bands or sleeves that are placed…

"A double-acting pump of the piston pattern is shown [here]. Such a pump has two sets of suction valves and delivery valves, one set for each side of the piston. With the piston moving in the direction of the arrow, the pressure of the atmosphere forces the water up the suction pipe P into the left-hand end of the pump cylinder, the left-hand suction valve opens and the left-hand delivery valve is closed...The water now flows up the delivery pipe P'." &mdash;Hallock 1905

Double-acting Force Pump

"A double-acting pump of the piston pattern is shown [here]. Such a pump has two sets of suction valves…

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves, the pressure of the descending piston forces the liquid up valves I and J into container H and finally out of hose L." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Fire Engine Pump

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves,…

An illustration of a force pump which is used to force liquid up and expel it under pressure.

Force Pump

An illustration of a force pump which is used to force liquid up and expel it under pressure.

"The forcing pump is represented where A is a solid piston, working air tight in its barrel. There tube, C leads from the barrel to the air vessel, D. Through the pipe, P, the water is thrown into the open air.G s a gauge, by which the pressure of the water in the air vessel is ascertained Through the water pipe I, the water ascends into the barrel, its upper end being furnished with a valve opening upwards." -Comstock 1850

Forcing Pump

"The forcing pump is represented where A is a solid piston, working air tight in its barrel. There tube,…

"As the piston ascends, as shown in the left-hand figure, the pressure of the atmosphere forces the water up the suction pipe P; the water opens the suction valve V and flows into the pump cylinder. When the piston moves down, as shown in the right-hand figure, the suction valve is closed and the delivery valve V' opened. The water in the pump cylinder is now forced up the delivery pipe P'." &mdash;Hallock 1905

Forcing Pump

"As the piston ascends, as shown in the left-hand figure, the pressure of the atmosphere forces the…

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into the chamber, K which builds pressure from condensing air. Tube I leads to a manual release jet." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Forcing Pump

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into…

An illustration of a Geissler pump. A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure they only displace fluid causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure.

Geissler Pump

An illustration of a Geissler pump. A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or…

An illustration of a Geissler pump. A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure they only displace fluid causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure.

Geissler Pump

An illustration of a Geissler pump. A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as gases, liquids or…

A device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries, or gases. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure; they onl

General Purpose Pump

A device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries, or gases. A pump displaces a volume by physical…

"The lift pump or suction-pump consists of a cylinder or barrel, piston, two valves, and a suction pipe, the lower end of which dips below the surface of the liquid to be raised." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Lift pump

"The lift pump or suction-pump consists of a cylinder or barrel, piston, two valves, and a suction pipe,…

"In some cases it is desired to raise water higher than it can be forced by the pressure of the atmosphere into the chamber of a simple suction pump. To accomplish this the pump chamber with its bucket and valves are set at a distance above the supply not exceeding that to which the air will successfully force the water. A closed pipe, P', called the delivery, or discharge, pipe, is then led from the upper part of the chamber to the point where it is desired to deliver the water." &mdash;Hallock 1905

Lifting Pump

"In some cases it is desired to raise water higher than it can be forced by the pressure of the atmosphere…

"Liquid is pumped up through pipe A, through valve H. The airtight piston G allows the liquid to pass up into the spout F where it is discharged from the pump." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Lifting Pump

"Liquid is pumped up through pipe A, through valve H. The airtight piston G allows the liquid to pass…

A lifting pump is used when water needs to be raised to a greater height than what can be done with an ordinary suction pump.

Lifting Pump

A lifting pump is used when water needs to be raised to a greater height than what can be done with…

A mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction

Piston Type Pump

A mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction

"The action does not differ in any way from that of the piston force pump. During the up stroke of the plunger, the suction valve is open and the delivery valve is closed; during the down stroke, the suction valve is closed and the delivery valve is open." &mdash;Hallock 1905

Plunger Pump

"The action does not differ in any way from that of the piston force pump. During the up stroke of the…

The Sprengel pump is a vacuum pump invented by Hanover-born chemist Hermann Sprengel in 1865 while he was working in London. The pump could be run continuously and without any supervision to achieve the lowest vacuum achievable at that time.

Sprengel Pump

The Sprengel pump is a vacuum pump invented by Hanover-born chemist Hermann Sprengel in 1865 while he…

The Sprengel pump is a vacuum pump invented by Hanover-born chemist Hermann Sprengel in 1865 while he was working in London. The pump could be run continuously and without any supervision to achieve the lowest vacuum achievable at that time.

Sprengel Pump

The Sprengel pump is a vacuum pump invented by Hanover-born chemist Hermann Sprengel in 1865 while he…

"Steam pumps are force pumps operated by steam acting on the piston of a steam engine directly connected to the pump, and in many cases cast with the pump. A section of a double-acting steam pump, showing the steam and water cylinders, with other details, is illustrated [here]." &mdash;Hallock 1905

Steam Pump

"Steam pumps are force pumps operated by steam acting on the piston of a steam engine directly connected…

An illustration showing the application of a jet condenser to pump a well. The steam enters the engine and leaves as exhaust. The exhaust steam is cooled by the well water in the jet condenser, then gets pumped into a separator. One stream exits into the sewer, and the remainder is pumped to the boiler as liquid and recycled into the condenser as steam.

Application of Steam Engine Jet Condenser used to Pump Well Water

An illustration showing the application of a jet condenser to pump a well. The steam enters the engine…