Illustration of two triangles, showing the sine of the sum of two acute angles expressed in terms of the sines and cosines of the angles.

Sum of 2 Acute Angles

Illustration of two triangles, showing the sine of the sum of two acute angles expressed in terms of…

Illustration of one possible outcome (no triangle occurs) when discussing the ambiguous case using the Law of Sines. In this case, side a is less than the height (bsinα).

Ambiguous Case

Illustration of one possible outcome (no triangle occurs) when discussing the ambiguous case using the…

Illustration of one possible outcome (1 triangle occurs) when discussing the ambiguous case using the Law of Sines. In this case, side a is equal to the height (bsinα).

Ambiguous Case

Illustration of one possible outcome (1 triangle occurs) when discussing the ambiguous case using the…

Illustration of one possible outcome (2 triangles occur) when discussing the ambiguous case using the Law of Sines. In this case, side a is greater than the height (bsinα).

Ambiguous Case

Illustration of one possible outcome (2 triangles occur) when discussing the ambiguous case using the…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane. The circle is divided into four quadrants by the x- and y- axes. The circle can be labeled and used to find the six trigonometric values (sin, cos, tan, cot, sec, csc, cot) at each of the quadrantal angles.

Unit Circle

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane. The…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. All quadrantal angles are given in radian measure in terms of pi.

Unit Circle Labeled At Quadrantal Angles

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. All quadrantal angles and angles that have reference angles of 30°, 45°, and 60° are given in radian measure in terms of pi. At each quadrantal angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled At Special Angles

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. All quadrantal angles and angles that have reference angles of 30°, 45°, and 60° are given in radian measure in terms of pi.

Unit Circle Labeled At Special Angles

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. At 30° increments, the angles are given in both radian and degree measure. At each angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled In 30° Increments With Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. The circle is marked and labeled in both radians and degrees in 45° increments. At each angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled In 45 ° Increments

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. At 45° increments, the angles are given in both radian and degree measure. At each quadrantal angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled In 45° Increments With Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. At 45° increments, the angles are given in both radian and degree measure. At each angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled In 45° Increments With Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane. All quadrantal angles are given in radian measure in terms of pi.  At each angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled With Quadrantal Angles And Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane. All…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. All quadrantal angles are given in degree measure. At each angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled With Quadrantal Angles And Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. All quadrantal angles are given in both radian and degree measure. At each angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled With Quadrantal Angles And Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane. At each quadrantal angle, the coordinates are given, but not the angle measure. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled With Quadrantal Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane. At each…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. At each quadrantal angle, the coordinates are given, but not the angle measure. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled With Quadrantal Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. The circle is marked and labeled in radians. All quadrantal angles and angles that have reference angles of 30°, 45°, and 60° are given in radian measure in terms of pi. At each angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled With Special Angles And Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. The circle is marked and labeled in both radians and degrees at all quadrantal angles and angles that have reference angles of 30°, 45°, and 60°. At each angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled With Special Angles And Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with the x- and y-axes indicated. The circle is marked and labeled in both radians and degrees at all quadrantal angles and angles that have reference angles of 30°, 45°, and 60°. At each angle, the coordinates are given. These coordinates can be used to find the six trigonometric values/ratios. The x-coordinate is the value of cosine at the given angle and the y-coordinate is the value of sine. From those ratios, the other 4 trigonometric values can be calculated.

Unit Circle Labeled With Special Angles And Values

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane with…

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane. All quadrantal angles and angles that have reference angles of 30°, 45°, and 60° are marked from the origin, but no values are given.

Unit Circle Marked At Special Angles

Illustration of a unit circle (circle with a radius of 1) superimposed on the coordinate plane. All…

The coversedsine is equal to 1 minus the sine. In this figure, AE is parallel to OB; hence, EO = AC = sine of angle AOC, when radius OA - 1. Therefore, Coversedsine = 1 - sine = 1 - AC/OA = 1 - AC = 1 - EO = ER, when OA = 1.

Versedsine and Coversedsine in Circle

The coversedsine is equal to 1 minus the sine. In this figure, AE is parallel to OB; hence, EO = AC…

A curve that is a function and resembles the sine or cosine curve.

Trigonometric Curve

A curve that is a function and resembles the sine or cosine curve.

Illustration that can be used to show that when given an angle, expressed as an inverse function of u, it can be used to find the value of any function of the angle in terms of u.

Angle Expressed As An Inverse Function

Illustration that can be used to show that when given an angle, expressed as an inverse function of…

Illustration of an angle &alpha with the vertex at the center, O, of a circle with radius OB. AC and BD are perpendicular to OB and join B with C. The are of the triangle OBC is less than the are of the sector OBC, and the sector OBC is less than the triangle OBD.

Triangles and Sectors in Quadrant I

Illustration of an angle &alpha with the vertex at the center, O, of a circle with radius OB. AC and…

Illustration of an angle &alpha with the terminal side used to draw a triangle in quadrant I.

Triangle in Quadrant I

Illustration of an angle &alpha with the terminal side used to draw a triangle in quadrant I.

Illustration of an angle with the terminal side used to draw a triangle in quadrant II.

Triangle in Quadrant II

Illustration of an angle with the terminal side used to draw a triangle in quadrant II.

"In geometry, certain transcendental curves having, in polar coordinates, equations of the form ρ = a cos b θ. A, three-leaved rose of equation ρ = a sin 3 θ." -Whitney, 1911

Rose

"In geometry, certain transcendental curves having, in polar coordinates, equations of the form ρ…

"The sine electrometer of August, is a modification of the single pendulum electroscope, analogous in principle to Pouillet's sine compass. A is a pendulum suspended by two threads to secure motion in one plane; B is a ball fixd to the case, and connected with a suitable electrode." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Sine Electrometer

"The sine electrometer of August, is a modification of the single pendulum electroscope, analogous in…

Illustration two types of triangles that can be used to model the law of sines. "In a plane triangle any two sides are to each other as the sines of the opposite angles."

Law of Sines

Illustration two types of triangles that can be used to model the law of sines. "In a plane triangle…

Illustration used, with the law of sines, to find the relation between two sides of a spherical triangle and the angles opposite.

Relationships In A Spherical Triangle

Illustration used, with the law of sines, to find the relation between two sides of a spherical triangle…

Illustration of a giant stepladder, sometimes called a skyscraper stepladder, that is opened next to a palm tree. One of the bottom legs of the unfolded ladder is adjacent to the tree. The ladder forms an isosceles triangle with the ground.

Skyscraper Giant Stepladder

Illustration of a giant stepladder, sometimes called a skyscraper stepladder, that is opened next to…

Trigonometric reference triangles/angles drawn for 60 degree reference angel in quadrants I and II.

Trigonometric Reference Triangles/Angles (60 degrees) Drawn in Quadrants

Trigonometric reference triangles/angles drawn for 60 degree reference angel in quadrants I and II.

Trigonometric reference triangles/angles drawn for reference angel in quadrants I and II. This illustration could be used to find trig ratios.

Trigonometric Reference Triangles/Angles Drawn in Quadrants

Trigonometric reference triangles/angles drawn for reference angel in quadrants I and II. This illustration…

Right triangle OCA, inside of Circle O is used to show that side AC is "opposite" O and side OC is "adjacent" to O. OA is the hypotenuse. Sine is defined as the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse (AC/OA). Cosine is defined as the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse (OC/OA), and Tangent is defined as the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side (DB/OB).

Trigonometry Triangle to Show Sine, Cosine, and Tangent

Right triangle OCA, inside of Circle O is used to show that side AC is "opposite" O and side OC is "adjacent"…