"And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so, as Jehovah had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent." Exodus 7:10 ASV
<p>Illustration of Moses and Aaron standing before Pharaoh and his advisers. Aaron holds the tale of a serpent that used to be his rod. Moses stands next to him and gestures toward the serpent. Pharaoh, wearing a crown, holding a sceptre, and sitting on a throne, stares at the snake. His arm is outstretched. One of Pharaoh's servants gapes at the scene. Others stand behind him, befuddled. A doorway displays a pyramid and palm trees in the background.

Aaron's Rod Turning into a Serpent Before Pharaoh and His Magicians

"And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so, as Jehovah had commanded: and Aaron cast…

"And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger." Luke 2: 15-16 KJV
<p>Illustration of the shepherds arriving at the stable where Jesus is lying in a manger. Mary kneels next to him and Joseph stands at the manger's side. A bull and calf are curled up in the foreground. The shepherds, young and old, arrive through an opening in a low wall and kneel before the manger. One shepherd has removed his hat and laid down his staff.

The Shepherds Arrive to Worship the Baby Jesus

"And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to…

Illustration of a bishop sitting on an ornately decorated cathedra. A crosier, pastoral staff, rests against his left shoulder. The view is of the left side of the bishop and throne. There are columns in the background, to the right of the throne. A cathedral is a church that is the cathedra, or seat, of a bishop.

A Bishop Sitting on a Bishop's Throne Called a Cathedra

Illustration of a bishop sitting on an ornately decorated cathedra. A crosier, pastoral staff, rests…

Illustration of the head of a bishop's staff, also called a crosier. The head is a serpent curled around another reptilian figure and a man with a staff. The serpent symbolizes that the bishop is responsible for the blood of his parish. The lower part is highly ornamented with vines, etc.

Bishop's Staff - Head with Serpent Design

Illustration of the head of a bishop's staff, also called a crosier. The head is a serpent curled around…

"And Jehovah sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died. And the people came to Moses, and said, We have sinned, because we have spoken against Jehovah, and against thee; pray unto Jehovah, that he take away the serpents from us. And Moses prayed for the people. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a standard: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live." Numbers 21:6-8 ASV
<p>Illustration of Moses holding up the bronze serpent on the staff and all of the Israelites looking upon it to be healed. Numerous people lie in various states of disease. Snakes are on the ground, coiled around arms, and biting people. Moses is pictured with horns made of rays of light. Tents and mountains can be seen in the background.

The Brazen Serpent and the Healing of the Israelites

"And Jehovah sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel…

"The staff or mace carried by heralds and ambassadors in time of war. This name is also given to the staff with which Hermes or Mercury is usually represented, as is shown in he following figure of that god. From caduceus was formed the word cadu ceator, which signified a person sent to treaty of peace. The persons of the caduceatores were considered sacred." &mdash; Smith, 1873

Caduceus

"The staff or mace carried by heralds and ambassadors in time of war. This name is also given to the…

A Roman chariot.

Chariot

A Roman chariot.

Illustration of a man using a cross-staff, a navigation tool used largely at sea. It was originally created for use in land navigation and finds latitude by measuring the distance of a star above the horizon. It cannot find longitude. The man in the drawing has the cross-staff positioned with the rod on his cheek. There is a star above him. He is wearing a wide, floppy-brimmed hat.

A Cross-Staff Used for Navigation at Sea

Illustration of a man using a cross-staff, a navigation tool used largely at sea. It was originally…

Two young girls lost in the woods.

Lost girls

Two young girls lost in the woods.

"In the Homeric times, the Greeks used a belt for the sword, and another for the shield. These passed over the shoulders and crossed upon the breast. The shield-belt lay over the other, and was the larger and broader of the two. This mode of carrying the shield was subsequently laid aside, on account of its inconvenience. The later method is shown." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Greek with shield

"In the Homeric times, the Greeks used a belt for the sword, and another for the shield. These passed…

Halberd, from the time of Henry VIII.

Halberd (Time of Henry VIII)

Halberd, from the time of Henry VIII.

Halberd (Charles II)

Halberd, (Charles II)

Halberd (Charles II)

Double-axed Halberd (Charles I)

Halberd, Double-axed (Charles I)

Double-axed Halberd (Charles I)

Halberd, Do, with fleur-de-lis (Henry VII)

Halberd, fleur-de-lis

Halberd, Do, with fleur-de-lis (Henry VII)

An illustration of the coat of arms of the Holy See with a crosier, processional cross, and some decorative foliage in the background.The coat of arms includes the crossed Keys of Heaven underneath the papal tiara.

The Holy See Coat of Arms with Crosier, Processional Cross, and Decorative Foliage

An illustration of the coat of arms of the Holy See with a crosier, processional cross, and some decorative…

An illustration of a group of kitchen staff carrying large quantities of food.

Kitchen Staff Carrying Food

An illustration of a group of kitchen staff carrying large quantities of food.

"This instrument was long, and curved at the end. From the similarity of form the original staff received the same appelation." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Litmus

"This instrument was long, and curved at the end. From the similarity of form the original staff received…

An ensign of authority.

Mace

An ensign of authority.

An illustration of a man with a cane.

Man with Cane

An illustration of a man with a cane.

An illustration of a man holding a staff with an eagle perched atop.

Man with Eagle

An illustration of a man holding a staff with an eagle perched atop.

An illustration of a man wearing a black top hat and holding a cane in his left hand.

Man with Hat and Cane

An illustration of a man wearing a black top hat and holding a cane in his left hand.

"And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and Moses spake to them. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh: and he gave them in commandment all that Jehovah had spoken with him in mount Sinai." Exodus 34:31-32
<p>Moses reveals the ten commandments to the children of Israel.

Moses Reveals the Ten Commandments to the Children of Israel

"And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and…

Musical notes

Music notes

Musical notes

A pilgrim dressed in a cloak with a hood, wearing a round, wide-brimmed hat, and carrying a staff, travels to a holy place. Christian pilgrimages became popular in the Middle Ages and were generally made on foot with very few provisions.

A Pilgrim Traveling During the Middle Ages

A pilgrim dressed in a cloak with a hood, wearing a round, wide-brimmed hat, and carrying a staff, travels…

"And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and Jehovah overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the host of Pharaoh that went in after them into the sea; there remained not so much as one of them." Exodus 14:27-28 ASV
<p>Pharaoh and his armies are destroyed by the returning water of the Red Sea. Men, chariots, weapons, and horses are tossed by waves. Moses and the Israelites stand on dry land in the background. Moses has his staff raised over the waters. A single strike of lightning streaks the sky.

The Red Sea Swallows Pharaoh and His Army

"And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its strength when the morning…

"General Rosecrans, commanding the Department of Western Virginia, surrounded by his staff, at their headquarters, Clarksburg, VA. We present to our readers a most interesting and valuable sketch of General Rosecrans and his staff- a sketch rendered all the more interesting by the brilliant triumph he gained over the Mercury of the Confederates, Floyd. We enumerate the names of the gallant men who so efficiently carried out the plans of their chief: Joseph Derr, Jr., private secretary; Captain C. Kingsbury, Jr., aid-de-camp; Captain N. P. Richmond, adjutant, and Captain Charles Leib, quartermaster." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

General Rosecrans

"General Rosecrans, commanding the Department of Western Virginia, surrounded by his staff, at their…

"And she went, and came and gleaned in the field after the reapers: and her hap was to light on the portion of the field belonging unto Boaz, who was of the family of Elimelech. And, behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said unto the reapers, Jehovah be with you. And they answered him, Jehovah bless thee. Then said Boaz unto his servant that was set over the reapers, Whose damsel is this? And the servant that was set over the reapers answered and said, It is the Moabitish damsel that came back with Naomi out of the country of Moab:" Ruth 2:3-6 ASV
<p>Illustration of Ruth gleaning grain in the fields of Boaz. She is on her knees at the feet of Boaz, who walks with a staff and a dog behind him. His servant tells him about Ruth. Four men and women, also gleaning, watch in the background. A small town and some trees are pictured in the background.

Ruth Meets Boaz While Gleaning in the Fields

"And she went, and came and gleaned in the field after the reapers: and her hap was to light on the…

"Sceptrum, which originally denoted a simple staff or walking stick, was emblematic of station and authority. In ancient authors the sceptre is represented as belonging more especially to kings, princes, and leaders of tribes: but it is also borne by judges, by heralds, and by priests and seers. The sceptre descended from father to son, and might be committed to any one in order to express the transfer of authority. Those who bore the sceptre swore by it, solemnly taking it in the right hand and raising it towards heaven. The following cut, representing Aeneas followed by Ascanius and carrying off his father Anchises, who holds the sceptre in his right hand, shows its form as worn by kings. The ivory sceptre of the kings of Rome, which descended to the consuls, was surmounted by an eagle." &mdash; Smith, 1873

Sceptrum

"Sceptrum, which originally denoted a simple staff or walking stick, was emblematic of station and authority.…

A music staff with 6 and a half octaves.

Staff

A music staff with 6 and a half octaves.

"Shows the head of a thyrsus composed of the leaves and berries of the ivy, and surrounded by acanthus leaves. Very frequently, also, a while fillet was tied to the pole just below the head." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Head of a thyrsus

"Shows the head of a thyrsus composed of the leaves and berries of the ivy, and surrounded by acanthus…