"Carrion-beetle (Silpha inaequalis). a, larva; d, same; f, g, h, mandible, labium, and maxilla of larva; i, j, anal process and antenna of same; m, one of the lateral processes. b, pupa; e, same; l, anal process of same. c, beetle; k, anterior tarsus of same." -Whitney, 1911

Carrion Beetle

"Carrion-beetle (Silpha inaequalis). a, larva; d, same; f, g, h, mandible, labium, and maxilla of larva;…

Erotylus boisduvali, a fungus beetle. "e, beetle; f, palpus; g, tarsus, from below; h, terminal joint of tarsus, from above; i, antenna." -Whitney, 1911

Fungus Beetle

Erotylus boisduvali, a fungus beetle. "e, beetle; f, palpus; g, tarsus, from below; h, terminal joint…

"1. Lower mandible. 2. Upper mandible. 3. Forehead. 4. Loral space. 5. Crown of the head. 6. Hind part of the head. 7. Scapulars--long feathers frm shoulders over sides of back. 8. Smaller wing coverts. 9. Bend of the wing. 10. Larger wing coverts. 11. Tertials, arising from the second bone of the wing at the elbow-joint. 12. Secondaries, from the second bone of the wing. 13. Primaries, from the first bone of the wing. 14. Tibia, the thigh. 15. Tarsus, the shank. 16. Upper tail coverts. 17. Lower tail coverts. 18. Tail feathers." -Roosevelt, 1884

Bird Parts

"1. Lower mandible. 2. Upper mandible. 3. Forehead. 4. Loral space. 5. Crown of the head. 6. Hind part…

"fig. 25 - Topography of a Bird. 1, forehead (frons). 2, lore. 3, circumocular region. 4, crown (vertex). 5, eye. 6, hind head (occiput). 7, nape (nucha). 8, hind neck (cervix). 9, side of neck. 10, interscapular region. 11, dorsum, or back proper, including 10. 12, notaeum, or upper part of body proper, including 10, 11, and 13. 13, rump (uropygium). 14, upper tail-coverts. 15, tail. 16, under tail-coverts (crissum). 17, tarsus. 18, abdomen. 19, hind toe (hallux). 20, gastraeum, including 18 and 24. 21, outer and fourth toe. 22, middle and third toe. 23, side of the body. 24, breast (pectus). 25, primaries. 26, secondaries. 27, tertiaries; nos. 25, 26, 27 are all coverts. 28, primary coverts. 29, alula, or bastard wing. 30, greater coverts. 31, median coverts. 32, lesser coverts. 33, the "throat," including 34, 37, 38. 34, jugulum or lower throat. 35, auriculars. 36, malar region. 37, gula, or middle throat. 38, mentum, or chin. 39, angle of commissure, or corner of mouth. 40, ramus of under mandible. 41, side of under mandible. 42, gonys. 43, apex, or tip of bill. 44, tomia, or cutting edges of the bill. 45, culmen, or ridge of upper mandible, corresponding to gonys. 46, side of upper mandible. 47, nostril. 48, passes across the bill a little in front of it base." Elliot Coues, 1884

Topography of a Bird

"fig. 25 - Topography of a Bird. 1, forehead (frons). 2, lore. 3, circumocular region. 4, crown (vertex).…

"Botaurus. Bittern. Bill moderately longer than head, shorter than tarsus, which is shorter than middle toe and claw." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Bill of a Bittern

"Botaurus. Bittern. Bill moderately longer than head, shorter than tarsus, which is shorter than middle…

"Sterna anaisthetikos. Bridled Tern. The foot of a Bridled Tern; Tarsus .85; middle toe the same, with the claw 1.20; outer toe 1.00; inner .75." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Foot of a Bridled Foot

"Sterna anaisthetikos. Bridled Tern. The foot of a Bridled Tern; Tarsus .85; middle toe the same, with…

"Figure shows Scutellate laminiplanter tarsus of a cat-bird. A tarsus so disposed as to its podotheca is said to be scutellate - scutellate before (fig 37), or behind, or both, as the case may be. ." Elliot Coues, 1884

Scutellate Laminiplanter Tarsus of a Cat-bird

"Figure shows Scutellate laminiplanter tarsus of a cat-bird. A tarsus so disposed as to its podotheca…

"Ventral aspect of male cockroach with the wings extended. An imaginary median line has been inserted. A., antennae; E., eye; P.T., prothorax; W1, first pair of wings; W2, second pair of wings; C., cercus; St., style; Co., coxa; Tr., trochanter; F., femur; Ti., tibia; Ta., tarsus." -Thomson, 1916

Cockroach

"Ventral aspect of male cockroach with the wings extended. An imaginary median line has been inserted.…

"Leg of cockroach. c., Broad expanded coxa; tr., trochanter; f., femur; ti., tibia; ta., six-jointed tarsus with terminal claws and adhesive cushions." -Thomson, 1916

Cockroach Leg

"Leg of cockroach. c., Broad expanded coxa; tr., trochanter; f., femur; ti., tibia; ta., six-jointed…

The tarsi and their ligaments.

Eyelid

The tarsi and their ligaments.

The dorsal surface of the bones in the right foot.

Foot Bones

The dorsal surface of the bones in the right foot.

The plantar surface of the bones in the right foot.

Foot Bones

The plantar surface of the bones in the right foot.

Bones of the foot, side view. In this figure the bones of the tarsus extend from the heel to <em>a</em>; the metatarsal bones are at <em>b</em>; and the bones of the toes are at <em>c</em>. In every movement of the foot there is some little motion between all these bones, and it is this that gives ease and grace to its motions.

Side View of the Bone of the Foot

Bones of the foot, side view. In this figure the bones of the tarsus extend from the heel to a;…

The plan of development of the foot.

Foot Development

The plan of development of the foot.

Bones of the foot (tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges).

Bones of the Foot

Bones of the foot (tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges).

Bones of the foot. At <em>e d f g h</em> are the 7 bones of the tarsus; at <em>a</em> are the 5 bones of the metatarsus; and at <em>b c</em> are the 14 bones of the toes (26 in all).

Bones of the Foot

Bones of the foot. At e d f g h are the 7 bones of the tarsus; at a are the 5 bones…

"Bones of Human Foot, or Pes, the third principal segment of the hind limb, consisting of tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges. a, astralagus; ca, calcaneum; n, navicular, or scaphoid; co, cuboid; c1, c2, c3, entocuneiform, mesocuneiform, and ectocuneiform, or inner, middle, and outer cuneiform bones. The foregoing seven bones constitute the tarsus, and m1 to m5, first to the fifth metatarsal, constitue the metatarsus. The remaining fourteen bones are the phalanges, three to each digit excepting the great toe; h, distal phalanx of the hallux or great toe." -Whitney, 1911

Bones of Human Foot

"Bones of Human Foot, or Pes, the third principal segment of the hind limb, consisting of tarsus, metatarsus,…

Oblique anteroposterior section of foot, to show the synovial cavities of the tarsus. Labels: 1, tibia; 2, fibula; 3, astragalus; 4, os calcis; 5, external lateral ligament; 6, internal lateral ligament; 7, interosseous ligament between astragalus and os calcis; 8, head of astragalus; 9, scaphoid; 10, 11, and 12, the three cuneiform bones; 13, cuboid.

Oblique Anteroposterior Section of

Oblique anteroposterior section of foot, to show the synovial cavities of the tarsus. Labels: 1, tibia;…

"Chroicocephalus atricilla. Laughing Gull. Black-headed Gull. Bill longer than middle toe and claw, shorter than tarsus or head, moderately compressed, rather stout for this genus. Culmen and commissure both decurved and the end, the latter somewhat sinuate at the base. Gonys considerably concave in front of the angle, somewhat so between the angle and tip; although the angle id well defined, the tip of the bill is so decurved that a chord from tip to base does not touch it." Elliot Coues, 1884

Laughing Gull Bill

"Chroicocephalus atricilla. Laughing Gull. Black-headed Gull. Bill longer than middle toe and claw,…

"Scutelliplantar foot of horned lark: the tarsus scutellate before and behind, and the toes all scutellate on top." -Whitney, 1911

Lark Foot

"Scutelliplantar foot of horned lark: the tarsus scutellate before and behind, and the toes all scutellate…

A medal of Tarsus which suggest that Minerva, the goddess of arts and sciences, was revered there.  In her hand she holds a Victory holding a garland, turning from the goddess.

Medal of Tarsus

A medal of Tarsus which suggest that Minerva, the goddess of arts and sciences, was revered there. In…

"Haematopus. Oyster-catcher. Bill peculiar - longer than tarsus, twice as long as head, constricted near the base, much compressed, almost like a knife-blade toward end, and truncate, something like a woodpecker's (it is an efficient instrument for prying open shells of bivalve mollusks), hard, straight or or deflected sideways, highly colored. Nasal groove very short, broad, and shallow; grooving of lower mandible slight; interramal space very short, scarcely a third the length of the long ascending gonys. Nostrils remote from the feathers, linear, close to edge of bill." Elliot Coues, 1884

Oyster-catcher Bill

"Haematopus. Oyster-catcher. Bill peculiar - longer than tarsus, twice as long as head, constricted…

"The Penguins are aquatic birds confined to the high S. latitudes or both hemispheres, where they congregate in large flocks. The body is generally elliptical; neck of moderate length; bill moderately long, straight, compressed; tail short. They have no quills in their wings, which are as rigid as the flippers of a cetacean, and utterly useless for flight, though they move freely at the shoulder joint, forming most efficient paddles, and are usually worked alternately with a rotatory motion. In standing, the penguin preserves an upright position, generally resting on the tarsus, which is widened like the foot of a quadruped; but in progressing this is kept nearly vertical, and the weight supported on the toes alone."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Penguin

"The Penguins are aquatic birds confined to the high S. latitudes or both hemispheres, where they congregate…

Bones of left tarsus of a horse, seen from in front and outside. Labels: 1, calcaneum; 2, astragalus; 3, cuneiforme magnum; 4, cuneiforme medium; 5, cuboid.

Tarsus of a Horse

Bones of left tarsus of a horse, seen from in front and outside. Labels: 1, calcaneum; 2, astragalus;…

An illustration of the front left tarsus of a penguin. "a, articular facet for inner condyle of tibia; b, articular facet for outer condyle; c, c, two foramina, showing incomplete fusion of three metatarsals; d, point of attachment of accessory metatarsal; 2, 3, 4, articular facets for second, third, and fourth toes." -Century, 1889

Front Left Tarsus of a Penguin

An illustration of the front left tarsus of a penguin. "a, articular facet for inner condyle of tibia;…

"Booted laminiplanter tarsus of a Robin" Elliot Coues, 1884

Booted Laminiplanter Tarsus of a Robin

"Booted laminiplanter tarsus of a Robin" Elliot Coues, 1884

"Feathered tarsus of a Grouse, Cupidonia cupido" Elliot Coues, 1884

Feathered Tarsus of a Grouse

"Feathered tarsus of a Grouse, Cupidonia cupido" Elliot Coues, 1884

"Sterna fuliginosa. Sooty Tern. feet stout; toes short; with much incised webs; tibia bare .70; tarsus 1.00; middle toe and claw 1.20; outer do. 1.05; inner do. .75; hind do. .30. "Elliot Coues, 1884

Sooty Tern Foot

"Sterna fuliginosa. Sooty Tern. feet stout; toes short; with much incised webs; tibia bare .70; tarsus…