"A centrifugal pump differing from an ordinary centrifugal pumps in one feature only. The water rises through a suction pipe S, which divides so as to enter the pump wheel at the center on each side. The pump disk or wheel is very similar to a turbine wheel. it is keyed on a shaft driven by a belt on a fast and loose pulley arrangement at P. The water rotating in the pump disk presses outwards, and if the speed is sufficient a continuous flow is maintained through the pump and into the discharge pipe D. The special feature in this pump is that the water, discharged by the pump disk with a whirling velocity of not inconsiderable magnitude, is allowed to continue rotation in a chamber somewhat larger than the pump. The use of this whirlpool chamber was first suggested by Professor James Thomson." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Centrifugal Pump

"A centrifugal pump differing from an ordinary centrifugal pumps in one feature only. The water rises…

Sectional elevation of the turbine building of the Essex Station.

Essex Station

Sectional elevation of the turbine building of the Essex Station.

A mechanical fan is a device used to produce airflow for the purpose of cooling. Mechanically, a fan can be any revolving vane used for producing air currents.

Industry Grade Mechanical Fan

A mechanical fan is a device used to produce airflow for the purpose of cooling. Mechanically, a fan…

"The sectional form of the guideblade chamber and the wheel and the curves of the wheel vanes and guideblades, when drawn on a plane development of the cylindrical section of the wheel; a, a, a are the sluices for cutting off the water; b, b, are apertures by which the entrance of exit of air is facilitated as the buckets empty and fill." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Guideblade Chamber

"The sectional form of the guideblade chamber and the wheel and the curves of the wheel vanes and guideblades,…

"The sectional form of the guideblade chamber and the wheel and the curves of the wheel vanes and guideblades, when drawn on a plane development of the cylindrical section of the wheel; a, a, a are the sluices for cutting off the water; b, b, are apertures by which the entrance of exit of air is facilitated as the buckets empty and fill." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Guideblade Chamber

"The sectional form of the guideblade chamber and the wheel and the curves of the wheel vanes and guideblades,…

"The most efficient form of water-wheel is the turbine, one form of which is shown." — Avery, 1895

Turbine

"The most efficient form of water-wheel is the turbine, one form of which is shown." — Avery,…

Runner of a mixed-flow turbine.

Turbine

Runner of a mixed-flow turbine.

"The general sectionl elevation of a Girard turbine, in which the flow is axial. The water, admitted above a horizontal floor, passes down through the annular wheel containing the guide-blades, G, and thence into the revolving wheel WW. The revolving wheel is fixed to a hollow shaft suspended from the pivot p. The solid internal shaft ss is merely a fixed column supporting the pivot. The advantage of this is that the pivot is accessible for lubrication and adjustment. B is the mortise bevel wheel by which the power of the turbine is given off. The sluices are worked by the hand wheel h, which raises them successively, in a way to be described presently. a is the sluice rods." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Girard Turbine

"The general sectionl elevation of a Girard turbine, in which the flow is axial. The water, admitted…

"In the "Hercules" turbine...the flow is what is called mixed, that is, it is partly a radial inward and partly an axial flow machine. On entering, the water flows at first in a radial direction, and the gradually, as it passes through the wheel, it receives a downward component which becomes more and more important" (Britannica, 383).

Hercules Turbine

"In the "Hercules" turbine...the flow is what is called mixed, that is, it is partly a radial inward…

"This turbine was designed to give 1250 H.P. with a fall of 25 ft. and an efficiency of 77%. It is fitted with a suction pope and a circular balanced sluice for admitting and cutting off the water-siupply" (Britannica, 384).

Jonval Turbine

"This turbine was designed to give 1250 H.P. with a fall of 25 ft. and an efficiency of 77%. It is fitted…

"Turbine is, in mechanics, a term formerly confined to horizontal water wheels, the revolution of which is due to the pressure derived from falling water, but now applied generally to any wheel driven by water escaping through small orifices subject to such pressure. The turbine was invented by Fourneyron in 1823, and the first one was made in 1827. Air and steam turbines are also in use, air and steam being used instead of water to drive the impulse wheel."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Pelton Wheel Turbine

"Turbine is, in mechanics, a term formerly confined to horizontal water wheels, the revolution of which…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Water enters through J and K following into G and H compartments. Afterwards the water is forced into the outside compartments thus turning the wheel." —Quackenbos 1859

Water Turbine

"Water enters through J and K following into G and H compartments. Afterwards the water is forced into…

Any of various machines having a rotor, usually with vanes or blades, driven by the pressure, momentum, or reactive thrust of a moving fluid, as steam, water, hot gases, or air, either occurring in the form of free jets or as a fluid passing through and entirely filling a housing around the rotor.

Water Turbine

Any of various machines having a rotor, usually with vanes or blades, driven by the pressure, momentum,…

This device is similar to a water mill. A water mill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour, lumber or textile production, or metal shaping. A water mill that generates electricity is usually called a hydroelectric plant.

Device for Lifting Water

This device is similar to a water mill. A water mill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine…