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“The Umbrella Bird is a native of Peru. It is about the size of a crow, with deep black plumage; the head is adorned with a large spreading crest, which arises from a contractile skin, and capable of being erected at will; the shafts of the crest-feathers are white, and the plumes glossy blue, hair-like and curved outward at the tips. When the crest is laid back the shafts form a compact white mass, sloping up from the back of the head; when it is erected the shafts radiate on all sides from the top of the head, reaching in front beyond and below the beak, which is thus completely concealed from view. A long cylindrical plume hangs down from the middle of the neck; the feathers of the plume lap over each other like scales, and are bordered with metallic blue. Umbrella birds associate in small flocks, and live almost entirely upon fruits. Their cry, which resembles the lowing of a cow, is most frequently heard just before sunrise and after sunset."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)


Birds: T-V


Everybody's Cyclopedia (New York, NY: Syndicate Publishing Company, 1912)


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