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“A rudder. Before the invention of the rudder, which Pliny ascribes to Tiphys, the pilot of the ship Argo, vessels were both propelled and guided by oars alone. This circumstance may account for the form of the ancient rudder, as well as for the mode of using it. It was like an oar with a very broad blade, and was commonly placed on each side of the stern, not at its extremity. The annexed woodcut presents examples of its appearance as it is frequently exhibited on coins, gems, and other works of art.” — Smith, 1873.


William Smith, A School Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1873) 169


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