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“A round shield, three feet in diameter, carried by the celites in the Roman army. Though small, compared with the Clipeus, it was so strongly made as to be a very effectual protection. This was probably owing to the use of iron in its framework. The parma was also worn by the cavalry. We find the term parma often applied to the target (Cetra), which was also a small round shield, and therefore very similar to the parma. The preceding cut represents a votive parma, embossed and gilt, representing onits border, as is supposed the taking of Rome by the Gauls under Brennus, and its recovery by Camillus.” — Smith, 1873


shield, Buckler, Parma


Roman Empire


William Smith, A School Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1873) 241


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