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“Spira, the base of a column. in the Tuscan and the Roman Doric the base consisted of a single torus, sometimes surmounted by an astragal. In the Ionic and Attic it commonly consisted of two tori, divided by a scotia, and in the Corinthian of two tori divided by two scotiae. The upper torus was often fluted, and surmounted by an astragal, as in the left-hand figure of the following wood-cut, which shows the form of the base in the Ionic or Attic temple of Panops on the Ilissus. The right-hand figure in the same wood-cut shows the corresponding part in the temple of Minerva Polias at Athens. In this the upper torus is wrought with a platted ornament, perhaps designed to represent a robe or cable.” — Smith, 1873


column, torus, Spira


William Smith, A School Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1873) 300


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