Dredging, the excavating or scooping out of soil, mud, sand or rock under water by a machine called a dredge. Dredging is used in deepening and widening the beds of rivers, canals, harbors. The forms of modern dredges are very numerous, different conditions requiring different forms.
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Chandler B. Beach The New Student's Reference Work for Teachers Students and Families (Chicago, IL: F. E. Compton and Company, 1909)