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“The vacuum-pan is in universal use in all European sugar-refineries, and in all well-provided sugar-plantations. It is generally made of copper, of a spherical form, and from six to nine feet in diameter. The bottom is double, leaving a space of an inch or two for the admission of steam between the two bottoms, and there is generally a long coiled copper pipe of three or four inches diameter above the inner bottom, so as to still further increase the amount of heating surface.” — Chambers, 1881


William & Robert Chambers Encyclopaedia - A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People (Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1881)


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