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“Amoung the larger kinds of military weapons in use before the invention of gunpowder. The balista, the catapulta, the scorpion, and the onger, propelled large and heav missiles, chiefly through the reaction of a tightly-twisted rope of hemp, flax, catgut, sinew, or hair; or else by a violent movement of levers.” — Chambers’ Encyclopedia, 1875


Chambers's Encyclopedia (Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1875)


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