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“The European lute is derived in form and name from the Arabic “el ud,” “the wood,” the consonant of the article “el” having been retained in the European languages for the initial of the name. The Arab instrument, with convex sound-body, pointing to the resonance board or membrane having been originally placed upon a gourd, was strung with silk and played with a plectrum of shell or quill. It was adopted by the Arabs from Persia.” —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903


The Encyclopedia Britannica, New Warner Edition (New York, NY: The Werner Company, 1893)


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