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“A bulb of liquid is placed in the base of the glass graduated tube. As temperature increases, the volume of the liquid increases and it expands up the tube where its level is read on the graduated scale.” —Quackenbos 1859


G. P. Quackenbos A.M. A Natural Philosophy: Embracing the Most Recent Discoveries in the Various Branches of Physics, and Exhibiting the Application of Scientific Principles in Every-day Life (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1859) 214


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