Vertebra of the Loins

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A vertebra of the loins; a, a, their bodies, larger and more spongy than those of the others; b,b,b, the superior; c,c,c the inferior articular processes, strong and deep, the superior concave; the inferior convex; d,d,d, the transverse processes, small and long, serving as levers for the attachment of muscles; e,e, the spinous processes, strong, horizontal, and flattened at the sides; f, the spinal foramen.


Lee, Charles A. Human Physiology for the Use of Elementary Schools, 11th ed. (Buffalo: J. C. Derby & Co., 1847) 78


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