Oliver Cromwell

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Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style– 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.


William Swinton Outlines of the Worlds History, Ancient Mediabal and Mondern, with special relation to the history of civilization and the progress of mankind (New York, NY: Ivison, Blakeman and Company, 1874)


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