The Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus), sometimes called the Field Mouse or Meadow Mouse, is a small North American vole found across Canada, Alaska and the northern United States. Its range extends further south along the Atlantic coast. One subspecies, the Florida Salt Marsh Vole, is found in Florida, and is classified as endangered. The Meadow Vole is active year-round, usually at night. It also digs underground burrows where it stores food for the winter and females give birth to their young. Although these animals tend to live close together, they are aggressive towards one other. This is particularly evident in males during the breeding season. It can cause damage to fruit trees, garden plants and commercial grain crops.
Edward Howe Forbush Useful Birds and Their Protection (Boston, MA: Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, 1907)