Combined Disk Harrow, Sod Cutter, and Roller
the Sod Cutter is also known as the shave off technique, shovels, hoes, or similar machinery are used to shave off the surface of the existing lawn, which is then carted away. Once the grass has been removed, the surface is usually rotovated so as to loosen the ground somewhat. If the exposed soil is not of high quality, a layer or two of topsoil may be applied prior to the installation of the sod. The soil is then nicely graded and the sod is installed on top of it.
Government Printing Office The Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1895)