The Forms of Resistance
The four fundamental forms of resistance: A, to tension; B, to compression parallel to fiber; C, to compression at right angle to fiber; D, to transverse tension; F, fiber of wood. Arrows indicate direction of force.
GalleriesCarpentry and Woodworking
Government Printing Office Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1897)