Structure of the Chest
Structure of the chest, showing the framework of the bones which are connected together chiefly by muscles. It is important to understand the structure of the chest in order to understand how the movements of the chest are made in inspiration and expiration. The spinal column b,b is the grand pillar that supports this barrel-shaped framework. The ribs c, c, c are fastened very strongly by ligaments to the spinal column. They are 2 in number, 12 on each side and extend round towards the breast bone (sternum) a in front.
Hooker, Worthington First Book in Physiology For the Use of Schools and Families (New York: Sheldon and Company, 1867) 58
Courtesy the private collection of Roy Winkelman