Chattanooga, Tennessee in 1862
Chattanooga, "the Scenic City", is the fourth-largest city in Tennessee (after Memphis, Nashville, and Knoxville), and the seat of Hamilton County, in the United States of America. It is located in southeast Tennessee on Chickamauga and Nickajack Lake, which are both part of the Tennessee River. The city, which lies at the transition between the ridge-and-valley portion of the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau, is surrounded by mountains and ridges. The first inhabitants of the Chattanooga area were Native American Indians with sites dating back to the Upper Paleolithic period, showing continuous occupation through the Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian (900–1650 AD), Muskogean and Cherokee (1776 – 1838 AD) periods.
Benson John Lossing, ed. Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (vol. 9) (New York, NY: Harper and Brothers, 1912)