This ClipArt gallery offers 76 illustrations furnaces and related equipment used in the iron and steel industries.

A gas holder is a metallic shell which is open at the bottom (like a bell), the lower edge of which dips into a deep tank of water in order to prevent the contained gas from escaping. The framework may be either of steel or timber -- the latter being preferred for the largest holders.

This illustration shows a partial section of a typical large American gas holder. It is a 5,000,000 cubic foot holder in New York City.

Partial Section of Typical Large American Gas Holder

A gas holder is a metallic shell which is open at the bottom (like a bell), the lower edge of which…

"The parting vessels are of porcelain which, to protect them against fracture by irregular heating, are covered with wire netting and plastered over with a mixture of clay and smithy scales. They are mounted in a frame and set loose in an iron pot with a hemispherical bottom, which is heated by a fire from below, the pot also serves to catch the contents of the porcelain vessel if the latter should be accidentally broken. The cover is perforated by a hole in the center for the passage of a lead pipe to carry off the sulphurous acid fumes." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Parting Vessel

"The parting vessels are of porcelain which, to protect them against fracture by irregular heating,…

"Pernot and Ponsard Furnaces and Allied Appliances. The pernot furnace as applied to the steel making differs in no material respect from the Pernot puddling furnace; it is substantially a Siemens-Martin furnace with a rotating bed. The hearth is a saucer-shaped cavity supported by an iron frame, mounted on the top of a slightly inclined nearly verticle axis, and running on wheels upon a rail or guide supported on a stout bogie." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pernot Furnace

"Pernot and Ponsard Furnaces and Allied Appliances. The pernot furnace as applied to the steel making…

Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore with coke, usually with limestone as a flux. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically four percent, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications.

Pig Iron Manufacturing Apparatus

Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore with coke, usually with limestone as a flux.…

"The "pistol pipe" stove, still largely used, chiefly differs from this in having the limbs of the U tube closely adjacent, so as to consist in fact of a single tube with the partition D in the center, the cold air passing up one side of the partition and down the other so as to become heated in passing; to accommodate the pipe to an arched roof, the upper end is bent inwards, thus giving the form of a pistol stock and barrel to the double pipe, two ranks of pipes facing one another being built in the same stove." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pistol Pipe Stove

"The "pistol pipe" stove, still largely used, chiefly differs from this in having the limbs of the U…

An geometric illustration of the algebraic product of (x+y)(x+y).

Representation of Algebraic Product of (x+y)(x+y)

An geometric illustration of the algebraic product of (x+y)(x+y).

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with an air course to cool it, c the bed supported on iron plates with air courses under them, f the exit flue leading to the chimney stack, which is surmounted with a damper k worked by a chain i from within the shen in which the forge is placed; b is the ashpit, g the slag-hole, and e the working door suspended by a chain from a lever with the counterpoise attached h, resting on the front side of the furnace roof." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Puddling Furnace

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with…

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with an air course to cool it, c the bed supported on iron plates with air courses under them, f the exit flue leading to the chimney stack, which is surmounted with a damper k worked by a chain i from within the shen in which the forge is placed; b is the ashpit, g the slag-hole, and e the working door suspended by a chain from a lever with the counterpoise attached h, resting on the front side of the furnace roof." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Puddling Furnace

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with…

"The Pyrenean forge essentially consists of a silicious stone bottom (covered over with a "brasque" of charcoal powder rammed down), with a tuyere inclining downward." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pyrenean Forge

"The Pyrenean forge essentially consists of a silicious stone bottom (covered over with a "brasque"…

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified, is in practice restricted to one particular operation practised as a preliminary stage in the puddling process, viz., melting pig iron on a hearth, on which the fuel is piled, the combustion being urged by a blast of air, which also partially oxidizes the iron, both as it melts and subsequently; the molten mass when the operation is complete is either run out into moulds, chilled by throwing water on it." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Refinery

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified,…

A riveted steel plate girder is designed to bear a large load in a building or bridge, and is made of steel.

Riveted Steel Plate Girder

A riveted steel plate girder is designed to bear a large load in a building or bridge, and is made of…

"Pig iron, the crude form of iron, which is produced from iron ore by the process of blasting, is taken to the rolling mills, where it goes through the process of puddling and rolling, and is thus purified and put into proper shape for use." — Beach, 1900

Rolling Mills

"Pig iron, the crude form of iron, which is produced from iron ore by the process of blasting, is taken…

A mill furnished with heavy rollers, through which heated metal is passed, to form it into sheets, bars or rails.

Rolling-mill

A mill furnished with heavy rollers, through which heated metal is passed, to form it into sheets, bars…

This illustration shows a simple lattice girder.

Simple Lattice Girder (Elevator and Elevation)

This illustration shows a simple lattice girder.

"Smelting is the act or process of obtaining metal from ore by the combined action of heat, air, and fluxes. In smelting iron the ore is first roasted in a kiln in order to drive off the water, sulphur, and arsenic with which it is more or less combined in its native state, and is then subjected to the heat of a blast furnace along with certain proportions of coke or coal and limestone, varying according to the composition of the ore to be heated."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Hot Blast Smelting Furnace

"Smelting is the act or process of obtaining metal from ore by the combined action of heat, air, and…

A method to cool a large number of steel during the hardening process. The top barrel A drains the water into barrel B, then the overflow from barrel B goes is directed into barrel C. The pump transfers back the overflow back into barrel A using a pipe.

Cooling Water for Hardening Steel

A method to cool a large number of steel during the hardening process. The top barrel A drains the water…