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“The term “refining,” although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified, is in practice restricted to one particular operation practised as a preliminary stage in the puddling process, viz., melting pig iron on a hearth, on which the fuel is piled, the combustion being urged by a blast of air, which also partially oxidizes the iron, both as it melts and subsequently; the molten mass when the operation is complete is either run out into moulds, chilled by throwing water on it.” — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893


The Encyclopedia Britannica, New Warner Edition (New York, NY: The Werner Company, 1893)


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