This ClipArt gallery offers 17 illustrations of commercial glassmaking.

A furnace used to harden glass.

Furnace

A furnace used to harden glass.

Inside Length of Furnace, 12 Feet.

Furnace

Inside Length of Furnace, 12 Feet.

An illustration of two adult men pulling a glass tube that was blown.

Glass Blowing

An illustration of two adult men pulling a glass tube that was blown.

In making sheet glass, a very large lump of molten glass is gathered on the rod as is shown at (a). This mass is rolled on an iron slab, expanded (b) by blowing down the pipe, and further manipulated by rolling on the slab, reheating at the mouth of the furnace, re-blowing, and allowing the soft mass to hang downward. if the glass is to be used for windows,  the blower has a cave in the floor about 8 ft deep, and in this hole he works the glass until he has a cylinder (c), which he swings backward and forward, holding onto the pipe. The cylinder is then blown to a length from 4 to 8 ft, according to the size of the window desired. It becomes very thin and chills rapidly. The blower then takes a second lump of hot glass, pulls it out to a string, winds it around each end of the cylinder (d), and cracks both ends off. A piece of wet iron is next drawn along the cylinder in the direction of the its length, as indicated by the dotted lines in (d). A crack follows the wet iron, and the detached cylinder opens a little at the long crack (e). A slight reheating, and opening out in a flattening kiln, serves to convert the split cylinder into a sheet.

Glass Blowing and Stretching

In making sheet glass, a very large lump of molten glass is gathered on the rod as is shown at (a).…

"The cylinder is placed vertically in the jaws of a cutting instrument, having a diamond cutter, pressing by a spring, inside the glass. The cutter moves by small wheels on the table on which it is placed, and being pushed around the cylinder it makes an accurate cut of uniform height." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"The cylinder is placed vertically in the jaws of a cutting instrument, having a diamond cutter, pressing…

"Now the splitting is done with a diamond cutter fixed in the fleft of a stick and guided from end to end of the cylinder by a straight-edge K laid within it. The cylinder is now ready to be taken to the flattening kiln." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"Now the splitting is done with a diamond cutter fixed in the fleft of a stick and guided from end to…

"In the arrangement of the flattening and annealing ovens numerous improvements have been effected, which have resulted in greatly increased smoothness and uniformity of the glass, and in considerable economy of time and labor in the operations. This shows a section of a flattening (L) and annealing kiln (M) in common use. The split cylinder O is introduced and gradually pushed forward so as to be uniformly heated till it reaches P, the flattening stone or table, mounted on a movable waggon N. On this waggon after it has been flattened it is carried into the annealing arch M, as shown by the dotted outline. Here in a less heat is graually stiffens, till it is ready to be moved by a forked tool to a horizontal position on the bed of the annealing oven." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"In the arrangement of the flattening and annealing ovens numerous improvements have been effected,…

"A form of glass cutter with a cast-iron handle." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"A form of glass cutter with a cast-iron handle." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

This is a combination tool featuring a glass cutter and knife. A glass cutter is a hand tool which aids in the cutting of flat or sheet glass.

Combined Knife and Scissors Glass Cutter

This is a combination tool featuring a glass cutter and knife. A glass cutter is a hand tool which aids…

"Flint-Glass Manufactory." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Manufactory

"Flint-Glass Manufactory." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Interior of a crown-glass house." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Manufactory

"Interior of a crown-glass house." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

One whose business is to blow and fashion glass.

Glass-blower

One whose business is to blow and fashion glass.

A man forming glass by blowing into the molten glass with a blowpipe.

Glassblower

A man forming glass by blowing into the molten glass with a blowpipe.

"The form of the bottle and the use of the blow-pipe are unequivocally indicated; and the green hue, in the painting, of the fused material, taken from the fire at the point of the pipe, cannot fail to show the intention of the artists." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian glassblowers

"The form of the bottle and the use of the blow-pipe are unequivocally indicated; and the green hue,…

"Glazing Barrels. A, elevation, showing door of case; C, hoppers for loading; B, section through barrel (showing opening in dotted lines)." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glazing Barrel

"Glazing Barrels. A, elevation, showing door of case; C, hoppers for loading; B, section through barrel…

"Five kinds of glass are made: flint glass, or crystal; crown glass, broad sheet glass, bottle, or green glass, and plate glass." —The Popular Cyclopedia, 1888

Glass manufacturing

"Five kinds of glass are made: flint glass, or crystal; crown glass, broad sheet glass, bottle, or green…

A pipe fitted with glass so as to exhibit the reed.

Pipe

A pipe fitted with glass so as to exhibit the reed.