This science ClipArt gallery offers 497 illustrations of geology, including structure and composition of land, minerals, and fossilized organisms.

"A variety of quartz which is peculiar in consisting of bands or layers of various colors blended together."-Whitney, 1902

Agate

"A variety of quartz which is peculiar in consisting of bands or layers of various colors blended together."-Whitney,…

A polished agate rock with concentric circles.

Polished Agate

A polished agate rock with concentric circles.

"Triclinic. Twinning very common, according to the albite law and evidenced by fine striation lines on the better cleavage surface." — Ford, 1912

Albite

"Triclinic. Twinning very common, according to the albite law and evidenced by fine striation lines…

Diagram of alluvial cones, showing surface and underground structures.

Alluvial Cones

Diagram of alluvial cones, showing surface and underground structures.

Diagram showing the progressive overlapping of the successive divisions of an alluvial fan, away from the source of supply.

Alluvial Fan

Diagram showing the progressive overlapping of the successive divisions of an alluvial fan, away from…

A mollusk radiate from the Paleozoic time, Ambonychia bellistriata.

Ambonychia Mollusk

A mollusk radiate from the Paleozoic time, Ambonychia bellistriata.

"Igneous rocks or lavas of various composition."-Whitney, 1902

Amygdaloid

"Igneous rocks or lavas of various composition."-Whitney, 1902

Sigillaria is the generic name assigned to this ancient arborescent lycopod. Occassionally the trunks were smooth. Extinct genus of tree-sized lycopsids from the Carboniferous Period (about 360 to 300 million years ago) that are related to modern club mosses. Sigillaria had a single or sparsely branched trunk characterized by a slender strand of wood and thick bark.

Sigillaria, An Ancient Tree

Sigillaria is the generic name assigned to this ancient arborescent lycopod. Occassionally the trunks…

"Andalusite is an aluminum silicate...found in imbedded crystals in clay slate." -Dana, 1883

Andalusite

"Andalusite is an aluminum silicate...found in imbedded crystals in clay slate." -Dana, 1883

"Annularia. A fossil plant allied to the Calamites." -Taylor, 1904

Annularia

"Annularia. A fossil plant allied to the Calamites." -Taylor, 1904

Paradoxides was a genus of relatively large trilobites, extinct marine arthropods, that form the class Trilobita found throughout the world during the Mid Cambrian period (540 million years ago). It was a moderately large trilobite with a semicircular head, free cheeks each ending with a long, narrow, recurved spine, and relatively large eyes. Its elongated trunk was composed of 20 segments and again was adorned with longish, recurved lateral spines. Its pygidium(caudal shield) was comparatively small and had one or two pairs of long spines on the posterior margin.

Paradoxides Harlani

Paradoxides was a genus of relatively large trilobites, extinct marine arthropods, that form the class…

An illustration of a section of anticlinal and synclinal folds on the like CD.

Anticlinal and Synclinal Folds

An illustration of a section of anticlinal and synclinal folds on the like CD.

A symmetrical anticlinal fold, the top of which has been eroded. Near St. Abb's Head, Scotland.

Anticlinal Fold

A symmetrical anticlinal fold, the top of which has been eroded. Near St. Abb's Head, Scotland.

A mountain mass composed of a number of anticlines may have these so arranged that they form a part of a larger arch.

Anticlinorium

A mountain mass composed of a number of anticlines may have these so arranged that they form a part…

This illustration shows the Appalachian Mountains, a region of numerous flexures on a grand scale, as well as many faults; some flexures having a span of several miles, and others only a few feet or inches.

Appalachian Mountains

This illustration shows the Appalachian Mountains, a region of numerous flexures on a grand scale, as…

"Generalized schematic of the hydrogeology of the study area. 1, unconfined conditions (Hawthorn Formation absent or very thin); 2, semiconfined conditions (Hawthorn Formation less than 100 feet thick); 3, confined conditions (Hawthorn Formation greater than 100 feet thick)." -Hatzell, 1995

Upper Floridan Aquifer

"Generalized schematic of the hydrogeology of the study area. 1, unconfined conditions (Hawthorn Formation…

This is a diagram showing the rocks of the successive periods of time. They are shown in order from the Archaean, in Northern New York, southwestward to the Coal-formation of Pennsylvania, showing that they succee one another on the map simply because they come to the surface in succession

Archaean Time

This is a diagram showing the rocks of the successive periods of time. They are shown in order from…

"Orthohombric. Usually in tabular diamond-shaped crystals, formed by a short prism terminated by low brachydomes. The brachydomes are usually striated parallel to the brachy-axis. Twinned at times, giving stellate groups; the different individuals of the twin groups being distinguished from each other by the direction of the striations upon them." — Ford, 1912

Arsenopyrite

"Orthohombric. Usually in tabular diamond-shaped crystals, formed by a short prism terminated by low…

East-west section across South Dakota to show the Dakota artesian system. The Dakota sandstone is composed for the most part of well-rounded and well-assorted quartz grains, representing an ancient river and wind-formed sand deposit.

Dakota Artesian System

East-west section across South Dakota to show the Dakota artesian system. The Dakota sandstone is composed…

Artesian Wells differ from ordinary wells in that their waters are discharged by natural pressures on their reservoirs, so that pumping is not necessary to raise the water Such wells are therefore true springs.

Artesian Well

Artesian Wells differ from ordinary wells in that their waters are discharged by natural pressures on…

A boring in the ground through which currents of water rise from various depths toward or above the surface.

Artesian Well

A boring in the ground through which currents of water rise from various depths toward or above the…

"Diagrams illustrating the conditions favorable for artesian wells. In A, the porous bed a is in the form of a basin; in B, it merely dips." -Salisbury, 1919

Artesian Well Conditions

"Diagrams illustrating the conditions favorable for artesian wells. In A, the porous bed a is in the…

An artesian well is a confined aquifer whose water is pressurized. Water will thus flow out of an artesian well without pumping.

Artesian Wells

An artesian well is a confined aquifer whose water is pressurized. Water will thus flow out of an artesian…

An articulate radiate from the Paleozoic time, Homalonotus delphinocephalus.

Articulate Radiate

An articulate radiate from the Paleozoic time, Homalonotus delphinocephalus.

An articulate radiate from the Paleozoic time, Orthoceras junceum.

Orthoceras Articulate

An articulate radiate from the Paleozoic time, Orthoceras junceum.

An ancient articulate from the Paleozoic time, Pacops bufo from the Hamilton group.

Pacops Articulate

An ancient articulate from the Paleozoic time, Pacops bufo from the Hamilton group.

"Diagram illustrating Darwin's theory of the formation of Atolls." -Geikie, 1893

Atoll Formation

"Diagram illustrating Darwin's theory of the formation of Atolls." -Geikie, 1893

Natural crystal. 6, axinite.

Axinite

Natural crystal. 6, axinite.

Diagrammatic section of an off-shore bar and the barachois or lagoon enclosed by it.

Off-shore Bar

Diagrammatic section of an off-shore bar and the barachois or lagoon enclosed by it.

Basalt, showing typical diabasic structure of lath-shaped crystals of plagioclase.

Basalt

Basalt, showing typical diabasic structure of lath-shaped crystals of plagioclase.

"Columnar structure in the basalt of the main sheet, south end of East Hill Cliff, near South Britain, Connecticut." -Walcott, 1901

Basalt

"Columnar structure in the basalt of the main sheet, south end of East Hill Cliff, near South Britain,…

"Diagram to illustrate the inferred structure in the vicinity of the "Triangle." Arkose conglomerate is represented by lines and ellipses, anterior basalt by the black areas, anterior shale by parallel lines, and main basalt by cross-hachure areas. The finer hachuring (and hence the deeper shade) corresponds to the higher blocks of the basalt." -Walcott, 1901

Basalt Diagram

"Diagram to illustrate the inferred structure in the vicinity of the "Triangle." Arkose conglomerate…

Basaltic columns in Wales.

Basaltic Columns

Basaltic columns in Wales.

"Basaltic rock interstratified with aqueous rocks; b Basaltic dyke." -Taylor, 1904

Basaltic Rock

"Basaltic rock interstratified with aqueous rocks; b Basaltic dyke." -Taylor, 1904

"Idealized profile to show the supposed structure in the rampart slope of the basin to the west of Ragland." -Walcott, 1901

Basin

"Idealized profile to show the supposed structure in the rampart slope of the basin to the west of Ragland."…

Different physiografic provinces make up the Basin of Middle Tennessee. Sections from east to west across the basin shows (1) the Lower Silurian strata, (2) the Devonian strata, (3) Carboniferous strata, (4) the Lower Carboniferous strata, (5) Conglomerate (Parma Conglomerae), (6) Coal measures.

Basin of Middle Tennessee

Different physiografic provinces make up the Basin of Middle Tennessee. Sections from east to west across…

General view, in part schematic, of the "Bassin du Puy" and the "Chaine du Velay" or "Chaine du Deves," Central France.

Bassin du Puy

General view, in part schematic, of the "Bassin du Puy" and the "Chaine du Velay" or "Chaine du Deves,"…

"Section of a beach defined by High- and Low-water Mark." -Geikie, 1893

Beach Section

"Section of a beach defined by High- and Low-water Mark." -Geikie, 1893

"Bear Butte, from the North." -Walcott, 1901

Bear Butte

"Bear Butte, from the North." -Walcott, 1901

Rapid change in thickness of beds, due to strong folding.

Change in Thickness of Beds

Rapid change in thickness of beds, due to strong folding.

Natural crystals. 2, beryl.

Beryl

Natural crystals. 2, beryl.

Cross-section of the Black Hills dome, showing the present structure and topography and the former continuation of the beds.

Black Hills Dome

Cross-section of the Black Hills dome, showing the present structure and topography and the former continuation…

Block faulting - ridges produced by tilting of blocks.

Block Faulting

Block faulting - ridges produced by tilting of blocks.

Block faulting - region of horizontal strata intersected by vertical fissures.

Block Faulting

Block faulting - region of horizontal strata intersected by vertical fissures.

Diagram showing mountains and valleys due to block faulting in the background, and the dissection of the blocks and filling of the valleys, in the foreground. A stage of maturity has been reached in the development of these mountains.

Block Faulting Results

Diagram showing mountains and valleys due to block faulting in the background, and the dissection of…

Diagram showing block faulting of the checkerboard type; peneplanation of the region, and the development of a complicated topography by erosion in the second cycle.

Checkerboard Block Faulting

Diagram showing block faulting of the checkerboard type; peneplanation of the region, and the development…

The mass consists of crystalline rocks, shown by dots, covered by limestones and other sediments, which originally were horizontal. A single great fault forms the left-hand face of the mountain, which consists of a tilted block, broken into minor blocks by lesser faults.

Block Faulting, Sandia Mountains

The mass consists of crystalline rocks, shown by dots, covered by limestones and other sediments, which…

Diagram illustrating the development of the block mountain topography of the Basin Ranges.

Development of a Block Mountain

Diagram illustrating the development of the block mountain topography of the Basin Ranges.

A bluff with broken stones at its base.

Bluff

A bluff with broken stones at its base.

Diagram showing three stages in the downward progress of a boulder on a sloping hillside under the action of frost.

Boulder

Diagram showing three stages in the downward progress of a boulder on a sloping hillside under the action…

Eroded fold, breached asymmetrical anticline, the hard stratum forming two opposing uniclines.

Breached Asymmetrical Anticline

Eroded fold, breached asymmetrical anticline, the hard stratum forming two opposing uniclines.

Bronzite diabase, showing lath-shaped plagioclase crystals.

Bronzite Diabase

Bronzite diabase, showing lath-shaped plagioclase crystals.

"Meandering course of a brook," (a, b, and c are loops) -Geikie, 1893

Brook

"Meandering course of a brook," (a, b, and c are loops) -Geikie, 1893

"Vertical section of Calamite, cut through node." -Taylor, 1904

Calamite

"Vertical section of Calamite, cut through node." -Taylor, 1904

"Transverse section of Calamite, showing cortical layer surrounding woody wedges." -Taylor, 1904

Calamite

"Transverse section of Calamite, showing cortical layer surrounding woody wedges." -Taylor, 1904

"Vertical section of Fruit of Calamite, magnified." -Taylor, 1904

Calamite Fruit

"Vertical section of Fruit of Calamite, magnified." -Taylor, 1904

"Transverse section of Fruit of Calamite, magnified." -Taylor, 1904

Calamite Fruit

"Transverse section of Fruit of Calamite, magnified." -Taylor, 1904

Modern Foraminiferal types - Calcarina

Calcarina

Modern Foraminiferal types - Calcarina

Calceola sandalina.

Calceola sandalina

Calceola sandalina.

"Teeth and Scales of Carboniferous Fish." -Taylor, 1904

Carboniferous Fish Fossils

"Teeth and Scales of Carboniferous Fish." -Taylor, 1904