Air pump used for taking the air out of a vessel.

Single Barrel Air Pump

Air pump used for taking the air out of a vessel.

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice to be opened or closed by the valve b, as the piston a is moved up or down in its barrel. The valve being fastened by a hinge on the upper side, on pushing the piston down, it will open by the pressure of the air against it, and the air will make its escape. But when the piston is at the bottom of the barrel, on attempting to raise it again, towards the top, the valve is closed by the force of the external air acting upon it. If, therefore, the piston be drawn up in this state, it must be against the pressure of the atmosphere, the whole weight of which, to an extent equal to the diameter of the piston, must be lifted, while there will remain a vacuum or void space below it in the tube. if the piston be only three inches in diameter, it will require the full strength of a man to draw it to the top of the barrel, and when raised, if suddenly let go, it will be forced back again by the weight of the air, and will stright the bottom with great violence." —Comstock, 1850

Atmospheric Pressure

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice…

An illustration of a barrel.

Barrel

An illustration of a barrel.

An illustration of a wooden barrel.

Barrel

An illustration of a wooden barrel.

"This is done in the mechanism of the watch, of which a, is the barrel containing the power in the form of a convoluted spring, and b the fusee which acts as a varying lever, and through which motion is conveyed to the hands of the watch." -Comstock 1850

Barrel and Fusee

"This is done in the mechanism of the watch, of which a, is the barrel containing the power in the form…

This barrel has a hollow conical container, traditionally made of vertical wooden staves and bound b wooden or metal hoops. Traditionally the barrel was a standard size of measure referring to a stet capacity or weight of a given commodity.

Traditional Wooden Conical Barrel

This barrel has a hollow conical container, traditionally made of vertical wooden staves and bound b…

A water barrel.

Water Barrel

A water barrel.

The Boston Tea Party, protesting the English tax on tea.

The Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea Party, protesting the English tax on tea.

"If the strong tube, or barrel, be smooth, and equal on the inside, and there be fitted to it the solid piston, or plug a, so as to work up and down, air tight, by the handle b, the air in the barrel may be compressed into a space a hundred times less than its usual bulk. Indeed, if the vessel be of sufficient strength, and the force employed sufficiently great, its bulk may be lessened a thousand times, or in any proportion, according to the force employed; and if kept in this state for years, it will regain its former bulk the instant the pressure is removed." —Comstock, 1850

Compression Experiment

"If the strong tube, or barrel, be smooth, and equal on the inside, and there be fitted to it the solid…

"The operation of the condenser is the reverse of that of the air pump, and is a much more simple machine. The air pump, will deprive a vessel of its ordinary quantity of air. The condenser, on the contrary, will double or treble the ordinary quantity of air in a close vessel according to the force employed. This instrument consists of a pump barrel and piston, a, a stop-cock b, and the vessel c furnished with a valve opening downwards. The orifice d is to admit the air, when the piston is drawn up to the top of the barrel." —Comstock, 1850

Condenser

"The operation of the condenser is the reverse of that of the air pump, and is a much more simple machine.…

"A cleaving tool having a wedge-shaped blade, with a handle set at right angles to the length of the blade, used in splitting staves for casks and the like. It is driven by a mallet." -Whitney, 1911

Frow

"A cleaving tool having a wedge-shaped blade, with a handle set at right angles to the length of the…

A young girl playing store with a simple table made of barrels and a plank of wood.

Girl playing store

A young girl playing store with a simple table made of barrels and a plank of wood.

"Glazing Barrels. A, elevation, showing door of case; C, hoppers for loading; B, section through barrel (showing opening in dotted lines)." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glazing Barrel

"Glazing Barrels. A, elevation, showing door of case; C, hoppers for loading; B, section through barrel…

"Gun. A, breech; B, barrel; C, band; D, breech-block; E, butt; F, butt- or heel-plate; G, front sight or bead; H, guard- or trigger-plate; I, guard-bow; K, hammer; L, lock; M, peep-sight; N, N, pipes; O, pistol-grip; P, rear sight; Q, receiver; R, side-screws or -nails; S, S, stock; T, tip; U, trigger; V, wiping-rod." -Whitney, 1911

Parts of the Gun

"Gun. A, breech; B, barrel; C, band; D, breech-block; E, butt; F, butt- or heel-plate; G, front sight…

"The pump barrel, a, b, is represented as divided lengthwise, in order to show the inside. The piston, c, is fitted so accurately to the barrel, as to work up and down water tight; both barrel and piston being made of iron. The thing to be broken or pressed, is laid on the flat surface, i, there being above this, a strong frame to meet the pressure, not shown in the figure. The small forcing pump, of which d is the piston, and h, the lever by which it is worked, is also made of iron." —Comstock, 1850

Hydraulic Press

"The pump barrel, a, b, is represented as divided lengthwise, in order to show the inside. The piston,…

The man who jumped into a barrel.

Legs

The man who jumped into a barrel.

A man pouring ale out of a barrel.

Man Pouring Ale

A man pouring ale out of a barrel.

Micrometer

Micrometer

Micrometer

"Denmark is one of the best dairy countries of the world, and I doubt whether there is any other land which produces so much butter in proportion to its size." —Carpenter, 1902

Danish milkman

"Denmark is one of the best dairy countries of the world, and I doubt whether there is any other land…

An illustration of a pirate sitting on a barrel eating a slice of pie.

Pirate Sitting On Barrel Eating Pie

An illustration of a pirate sitting on a barrel eating a slice of pie.

Pirates of the eighteenth century at their cave.

Pirates

Pirates of the eighteenth century at their cave.

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

Piston and Barrel of Deleuil's Air-pump

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

A child sitting on a barrel, listening to advice from a rat.

Rat Advice

A child sitting on a barrel, listening to advice from a rat.

"The parts are the butt, A; small, B; magazine well, C; barrel bed, D; air chamber, E, which reduces the charring effect og a heater barrel on the stock; small butt plate screw hole and seat for the butt plate tang, F; butt swivel plate seat, G; mortise for receiver tang lug and hole for rear guard screw, H; mortise for sear and slot for trigger, I; cut-off thumb-piece recess, J; mortise for recoil on the receiver, K; bed for fixed base, L; grasping grooves, N; shoulder for lower band, O; bed for band spring, P; shoulder for upper band, Q; channels for decreasing weight, R; upper band screw hole, S; and the stock screw hole, T. The large hole in butt is for decreasing weight, and the smaller one is a pocket for the combination oiler and thong case." — Moss, 1914

Stock, right side view

"The parts are the butt, A; small, B; magazine well, C; barrel bed, D; air chamber, E, which reduces…

"The parts are the butt, A; small, B; magazine well, C; barrel bed, D; air chamber, E, which reduces the charring effect og a heater barrel on the stock; small butt plate screw hole and seat for the butt plate tang, F; butt swivel plate seat, G; mortise for receiver tang lug and hole for rear guard screw, H; mortise for sear and slot for trigger, I; cut-off thumb-piece recess, J; mortise for recoil on the receiver, K; bed for fixed base, L; grasping grooves, N; shoulder for lower band, O; bed for band spring, P; shoulder for upper band, Q; channels for decreasing weight, R; upper band screw hole, S; and the stock screw hole, T. The large hole in butt is for decreasing weight, and the smaller one is a pocket for the combination oiler and thong case." — Moss, 1914

Stock, top view

"The parts are the butt, A; small, B; magazine well, C; barrel bed, D; air chamber, E, which reduces…

This diagram is of a simple table created from two barrels and a large plank of wood.

Simple barrel table

This diagram is of a simple table created from two barrels and a large plank of wood.

"Vats in a wine room for fermentation." —Davison, 1910

Wine vats

"Vats in a wine room for fermentation." —Davison, 1910