A diagram showing 30-volt scale connected across storage battery terminals.

30-Volt Scale

A diagram showing 30-volt scale connected across storage battery terminals.

A meter used to test batteries.

Ammeter

A meter used to test batteries.

"In all the arc lamps in common use, the coil, by means of which the automatic maintenance of the arc is kept up, is placed as a shunt across the its poles."—Finley, 1917

Arc lamp

"In all the arc lamps in common use, the coil, by means of which the automatic maintenance of the arc…

An automobile used for transportation that is run completely off electricity.

Electric Automobile

An automobile used for transportation that is run completely off electricity.

An automobile used for transportation that is run completely off electricity.

Electric Automobile

An automobile used for transportation that is run completely off electricity.

The electrical symbol for a battery, either storage or dry cells.

Battery

The electrical symbol for a battery, either storage or dry cells.

"The term battery is applied either to a single jar, or cell, containing the generating materials, or to a number of such cells conected togehter by electric conductors; the latter being the more proper use of the term, though the former use is common." -Atkinson 1903

Battery

"The term battery is applied either to a single jar, or cell, containing the generating materials, or…

"A simple battery constructed from sulphuric acid and zinc ." -Avery 1895

Simple Battery

"A simple battery constructed from sulphuric acid and zinc ." -Avery 1895

"Battery and lamp set for illuminating partition interiors." —Croft 1915

Battery and Lamp

"Battery and lamp set for illuminating partition interiors." —Croft 1915

An illustration of Mance's method used to measure battery resistance.

Battery Resistance

An illustration of Mance's method used to measure battery resistance.

An illustration of Mance's method used to measure battery resistance.

Battery Resistance

An illustration of Mance's method used to measure battery resistance.

An illustration of the assisting and opposing method used to measure battery resistance.

Battery Resistance

An illustration of the assisting and opposing method used to measure battery resistance.

A wet-cell battery composed of zinc in a copper sulfate solution.

Daniell's Battery

A wet-cell battery composed of zinc in a copper sulfate solution.

"Galvanism is the branch of electric science to which an experiment by Galvani gave birth. His wife, who was making soup from frogs, put them in proximity to a charged electrical machine. On touching them with a scalpel their legs became greatly convulsed. He came to the erroneous conclusion that animal electricity existed in the nerves and muscles of frogs, etc. His contemporary Volta inferred that the metals took the active part in producing the contraction, and the electricity was due to their contact. In 1800 he first described and constructed what has since been called the Voltaic pile."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Galvanic Battery

"Galvanism is the branch of electric science to which an experiment by Galvani gave birth. His wife,…

"If we take for example, a slip of zinc, and another of copper, and place the in a cup of diluted sulphuric acid, their upper ends in tontact, and above the water, and their lower ends separated, then there will be constituted a galvanic circle, of the simplest form, consisting of three elements, zinc, acid, copper." -Comstock 1850

Galvanic Battery

"If we take for example, a slip of zinc, and another of copper, and place the in a cup of diluted sulphuric…

"A type of battery used to produce electricity.." -Comstock 1850

Galvanic Battery

"A type of battery used to produce electricity.." -Comstock 1850

Battery which is not intended to be recharged and is discarded when it has delivered all of its electrical energy. A non-rechargeable battery.

Primary Battery

Battery which is not intended to be recharged and is discarded when it has delivered all of its electrical…

A rechargeable battery also known as a storage battery is a group of one or more secondary cells. Rechargeable batteries use electrochemical reactions that are electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries can offer economic and environmental benefits compared to disposable batteries.

Storage Battery

A rechargeable battery also known as a storage battery is a group of one or more secondary cells. Rechargeable…

An illustration of a thermoelectric battery.

Thermoelectric Battery

An illustration of a thermoelectric battery.

The trough battery was a variant of the Voltaic Pile and was invented by William Cruickshank c1800. Volta's battery consisted of brine-soaked pieces of cloth sandwiched between zinc and copper discs, piled stack; this resulted in electrolyte leakage as the weight of the discs squeezed the electrolyte out of the cloth. Cruickshank solved this problem by laying the battery on its side in a rectangular box. The inside of this box was lined with shellac for insulation, and pairs of welded-together zinc and copper were laid out in this box, evenly spaced. The spaces between the plates (the troughs) were filled with dilute sulfuric acid. So long as the box wasn't knocked about, there was no risk of electrolyte spillage.

Trough Battery

The trough battery was a variant of the Voltaic Pile and was invented by William Cruickshank c1800.…

In Wollaston's battery, the wooden box was replaced with an earthenware vessel, and a copper plate was bent into a U-shape, with a single plate of zinc placed in the center of the bent copper. The zinc plate was prevented from making contact with the copper by dowels (pieces) of cork or wood. In his single cell design, the U-shaped copper plate was welded to a horizontal handle for lifting the copper and zinc plates out out the electrolyte when the battery was not in use.

Wallaston's Battery

In Wollaston's battery, the wooden box was replaced with an earthenware vessel, and a copper plate was…

In Wollaston's battery, the wooden box was replaced with an earthenware vessel, and a copper plate was bent into a U-shape, with a single plate of zinc placed in the center of the bent copper. The zinc plate was prevented from making contact with the copper by dowels (pieces) of cork or wood. In his single cell design, the U-shaped copper plate was welded to a horizontal handle for lifting the copper and zinc plates out out the electrolyte when the battery was not in use.

Wallaston's Battery

In Wollaston's battery, the wooden box was replaced with an earthenware vessel, and a copper plate was…

An illustration of the connections for a capacity test on a battery.

Connections for Capacity Test

An illustration of the connections for a capacity test on a battery.

"Simple Daniell cell for closed circuit work." — Hawkins, 1917

Daniell cell

"Simple Daniell cell for closed circuit work." — Hawkins, 1917

A voltaic cell.

Voltaic cell

A voltaic cell.

"Just as a head of water supplies a hydraulic pressure that causes the liquid to flow through a pipe in spite of friction, so there is an electrical pressure that forces a current through a conductor in spite of its resistance. The unit of electrical pressure is called the volt." — Avery, 1895

Voltaic cell

"Just as a head of water supplies a hydraulic pressure that causes the liquid to flow through a pipe…

Auto-lite battery cut-out.

Circuit Breaker

Auto-lite battery cut-out.

The first two-fluid cell was incented by Daniell, and English electrician in 1836..." -Atkinson 1903

Daniel Cell

The first two-fluid cell was incented by Daniell, and English electrician in 1836..." -Atkinson 1903

"...is constructed with a plate of black oxide of copper suspended between two plates of zinc, and the fluid is a solution of caustic potash in water." -Atkinson 1903

Edison-Lalande Cell

"...is constructed with a plate of black oxide of copper suspended between two plates of zinc, and the…

Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a star shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812 when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy in the Chesapeake Bay.

Ruins of Battery at Fort McHenry

Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a star shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812…

Two galvanic cells in series.

Galvanic Cell

Two galvanic cells in series.

"The electric resistance of the porous cup employed in the Daniel cell, and the local action produced by the material of which is it composed, led to the invention of similar cells in which it is dispensed with, the gravity cell." --Atkinson 1903

Gravity Cell

"The electric resistance of the porous cup employed in the Daniel cell, and the local action produced…

Diagram of a high-tension ignition system. A is the source of current, usually a batter in earlier days, as indicated by the conventional sign, placed in a primary circuit that also includes the contact maker C, the primary winding of the coil B, and the vibrator G.

High-Tension Ignition System

Diagram of a high-tension ignition system. A is the source of current, usually a batter in earlier days,…

Diagram of a low-tension ignition system. A is the battery, B is a spark coil, and C, D, and E are the elements of a make-and-break device that is mechanically actuated at regular intervals by the motor itself to produce the sparks within the cylinder.

Ignition System

Diagram of a low-tension ignition system. A is the battery, B is a spark coil, and C, D, and E are the…

Four-cylinder low-tension ignition system.

Ignition System

Four-cylinder low-tension ignition system.

Essentials of battery ignition system.

Ignition System

Essentials of battery ignition system.

"Diagram of battery and coil connections for jump spark iginition as applied to a motor cycle." — Hawkins, 1917

Jump start ignition

"Diagram of battery and coil connections for jump spark iginition as applied to a motor cycle." —…

"...or in a number of [leyden] jars connected together as a Leyden battery." -Atkinson 1903

Leyden Battery

"...or in a number of [leyden] jars connected together as a Leyden battery." -Atkinson 1903

"Morse magnetic telegraph will be understood by reference to the accompanying diagram, which represents the construction and arrangement of this form of telegraph. F and E are pieces of soft iron surrounded by coils of wire, which are connected at a and b with wires proceeding from a galvanic battery. When a current is transmitted from a battery located one, two, or three hundred miles, as the case may be, it passes along the wires and into the coils surrounding the pieces of soft iron F and E, thereby converting them into magnets. Above these pieces of soft iron is a metallic bar or lever, A, supported on its center, and haing at one end the arm D, and at the other a small steel point, o. A ribbon of paper, p h, rolled on the cylinder B, is drawn slowly and steadily off by a train of clock-work, K, moved by the action of the weight P on the cord C. This clock-work gives motion to two metal rollers, G and H, between which the ribbon of paper passes, and which, turnin in opposite directions, draw the paper from the cylinder B. The roller H has a groove arond its circumference (not represented in the engraving) above which the paper passes. The steel point, r, or the lever, A, is also directly opposite this groove. The spring r prevents the point from resting upon the paper when the telegraph is not in operation." —Wells, 1857

Magnetic Telegraph

"Morse magnetic telegraph will be understood by reference to the accompanying diagram, which represents…

An illustration of a mortar battery located at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. A mortar is a muzzleloading indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities, short ranges, and high-arcing ballistic trajectories. A battery is a until of weapons grouped in order to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constitute gunnery crews and their systems.

Mortar Battery

An illustration of a mortar battery located at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. A mortar is a muzzleloading indirect…

An electric motor is a motor that uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, usually through the interaction of magnetic fields and current carrying conductors.

Electric Battery Operated Motor

An electric motor is a motor that uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, usually through…

"Naval hospital and battery at Portsmouth, VA." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Naval hospital

"Naval hospital and battery at Portsmouth, VA." — Frank Leslie, 1896

"Diagram of a multiple or parallel connection. When connected in this manner the voltage of the battery is the same as that of a single cell, but the current is equal to the amperage of a single cell multiplied by the number of cells." -Hawkins, 1917

Parallel Connection

"Diagram of a multiple or parallel connection. When connected in this manner the voltage of the battery…

Figure showing battery cells connected in parallel, with all of the positive ends wired together, and all of the negative ends wired together.

Parallel Connection

Figure showing battery cells connected in parallel, with all of the positive ends wired together, and…

Heinze-Springfield current regulator and battery cut-out.

Regulator

Heinze-Springfield current regulator and battery cut-out.

Figure showing a series type of connection between multiple battery cells, where the negative end of one battery is attached to the positive end of the next.

Series Connection

Figure showing a series type of connection between multiple battery cells, where the negative end of…

"Diagram of a series multiple connction. Two sets of cells are connected in series, and the two batteries thus formed, connected in parallel. The pressure equals the voltage of one cell, multiplied by the number of cells in one battery, and the amperage, that of one cell multiplied by the number of batteries." -Hawkins, 1917

Series Multiple Connection

"Diagram of a series multiple connction. Two sets of cells are connected in series, and the two batteries…

One of the most famous Parrott rifles is the Swamp Angel, an 8-inch (200 mm) gun used by federal Brigadier General Quincy Adams Gillmore to bombard Charleston, South Carolina.

Swamp Angel

One of the most famous Parrott rifles is the Swamp Angel, an 8-inch (200 mm) gun used by federal Brigadier…

"The metallic elements C and Z each conssted of two metals, the plate C being of copper and the plate of Z zinc. They were placed, as shown, in the glass vessels, which contained salt water and ordinary water of lye. Into each vessel, except the two end ones, the copper end of one arc and the zinc end of the next were introduced, the series, however long, ending with copper dipping into the terminal wbessel at one end and zinc into that at the other. The arrangement is almost exactly that of a modern one fluid battery." -Hawkins, 1917

Volta's Crown of Cups

"The metallic elements C and Z each conssted of two metals, the plate C being of copper and the plate…

The Voltaic Cell is also known as the Galvanic Battery. Luigi Galvani discovered it. It is a combination of two metals in a liquid chemically acting upon one to a greater extent than the other.

Voltaic Cell

The Voltaic Cell is also known as the Galvanic Battery. Luigi Galvani discovered it. It is a combination…

"The Wheatstone bridge is used as a way to measure resistance of a unknown resitors." -Avery 1895

Wheatstone Bridge in Circuit

"The Wheatstone bridge is used as a way to measure resistance of a unknown resitors." -Avery 1895