"The arc lamp is essentially a device for automatically separating the carbons when the current is turned on, for 'feeding' the carbons together as they are burned away at their tips, and, in some cases, for short-circuiting the lamp in case of irregularity or accident." -Avery 1895

Arc Lamp

"The arc lamp is essentially a device for automatically separating the carbons when the current is turned…

"Diagram of inclined carbon-flame arc lamp." —Croft 1917

Carbon Flame Arc Lamp

"Diagram of inclined carbon-flame arc lamp." —Croft 1917

"Illustration showing the detail of a carbon arc lamp; S, solenoid; c, clutch; w, clutch-washer; T, electromagnet; m, short circuit point; R, resistance properly adjusted." -Avery 1895

Detailed Arc Lamp

"Illustration showing the detail of a carbon arc lamp; S, solenoid; c, clutch; w, clutch-washer; T,…

Arc lighting, which used two carbon rods conducting electricity to produce light. -Atkinson 1903

Carbon Arc Lighting

Arc lighting, which used two carbon rods conducting electricity to produce light. -Atkinson 1903

A cut of a gemstone. A brilliant cut stone has fifty-eight facets.

Brilliant Cut

A cut of a gemstone. A brilliant cut stone has fifty-eight facets.

Edison's Carbon Telephone. He tried using carbon with the purpose of reducing the delicacy of the instrument.

Carbon Telephone

Edison's Carbon Telephone. He tried using carbon with the purpose of reducing the delicacy of the instrument.

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution of Potassuim Cyanide (KCN), containing 0.05 to 0.3 percent KCN (or its equivalent, Sodium Cyanide, NaCN) which is allowed to remain for twelve to twenty-four hours to dissolve the gold.

Cyanide Leaching Tank (Gold Extraction)

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution…

"Pure crystalline carbon, the hardest substance known, possessing great lustre owing to its great refracting power." — Williams, 1889

Diamond

"Pure crystalline carbon, the hardest substance known, possessing great lustre owing to its great refracting…

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

Diamond

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

Diamond

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

Diamond

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

Diamond

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

This illustration shows a Double Brilliant (sometimes called Lisbon) cut gem.

Double Brilliant Cut

This illustration shows a Double Brilliant (sometimes called Lisbon) cut gem.

"The second form of carbon, known as graphite, is a leaden-gray solid with a metallic luster and a specific gravity of 2 to 2.2, which crystallizes." —Hallock 1905

Graphite

"The second form of carbon, known as graphite, is a leaden-gray solid with a metallic luster and a specific…

"The elements are zinc and carbon. In the Greet cell, a zinc plate is suspended b a rod between two carbon plates, so that it does not touch them, and when the cell is not in use the zinc is withdrawn from the solution..." -Hawkins, 1917

Grenet Cell

"The elements are zinc and carbon. In the Greet cell, a zinc plate is suspended b a rod between two…

"...and is constructed with a zinc plate suspended between two carbon plates, so as to have two carbon surfaces exposed to the direct action of two zinc surfaces, and as close to them as praticable without contact, to reduce teh electric resistance through the fluid to the lowest degree." -Atkinson 1903

Grenet Cell

"...and is constructed with a zinc plate suspended between two carbon plates, so as to have two carbon…

"...and is constructed with a zinc plate suspended between two carbon plates, so as to have two carbon surfaces exposed to the direct action of two zinc surfaces, and as close to them as praticable without contact, to reduce teh electric resistance through the fluid to the lowest degree." -Atkinson 1903

Grenet Cell

"...and is constructed with a zinc plate suspended between two carbon plates, so as to have two carbon…

"Incandescence lamps operate essentially on the principle...[that] the current being sent through some substance that, because of its high resistance, becomes intensely heated and brilliantly incandescent. The only suitable substance known for such a resistance filament is carbon, which, carefully prepared and bent into a loop, is enclosed in a glass bulb from which the air is exhausted to prevent oxidation, i.e., combustion." -Avery 1895

Incandescence Lamp

"Incandescence lamps operate essentially on the principle...[that] the current being sent through some…

"Partz acid gravity cell. In this form of cell, the electrolyte which surrounds the zinc is either magnesium sulphate or common salt. the depolarizer is a bichromate silution which surounds the perforated carbon plate located in the bottom of the jar. A vertical carbon rod fits snugly into the tapered hole in the carbon plate, and extends through the cover forming the positive pole." -Hawkins, 1917

Partz Cell

"Partz acid gravity cell. In this form of cell, the electrolyte which surrounds the zinc is either magnesium…

"Fill with carbon dioxide a large rubber toy balloon or other double-convex lens having easily flexible walls. Suspend a watch, and place yourself so that you can just hear its ticking. Have the gas-filled lens moved back and forth in the line between watch and and ear until the ticking is much more plainly heard. Use a glass funnel as an ear-trumpet." -Avery 1895

Sound Refraction

"Fill with carbon dioxide a large rubber toy balloon or other double-convex lens having easily flexible…

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of nearly equal size throughout.

Rose Cut

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of…

A split cut is a cut of gemstone. It is similar to a trap cut.

Split Cut

A split cut is a cut of gemstone. It is similar to a trap cut.

A Trap Cut is a cut of gemstone. Emeralds are commonly cut this way.

Trap Cut

A Trap Cut is a cut of gemstone. Emeralds are commonly cut this way.

"Wheelock cell, the elements are carbon and zinc." -Hawkins, 1917

Wheelock Cell

"Wheelock cell, the elements are carbon and zinc." -Hawkins, 1917