"Cardinal, an ecclesiastical prince in the Roman Catholic Church, who has a voice in the conclave at the election of a pope, the popes being taken from the cardinals. The cardinals are appointed by the pope, and are divided into three classes or orders, comprising six bishops, fifty priests, and fourteen deacons making seventy at most." — Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Cardinal Hat

"Cardinal, an ecclesiastical prince in the Roman Catholic Church, who has a voice in the conclave at…

The Catholics of Maryland.

Catholics

The Catholics of Maryland.

St. Louis, Missouri's cathedral as pictured in 1874.

Church

St. Louis, Missouri's cathedral as pictured in 1874.

An illustration of the ruins of St. Finbar located in Charleston, SC.

Church Ruins

An illustration of the ruins of St. Finbar located in Charleston, SC.

(1839-1902) Catholic Archbishop of New York 1885

Archbishop Michael Corrigan

(1839-1902) Catholic Archbishop of New York 1885

The ceremonial mitre of the Archbishop Cranley, 1407.

Mitre of Archbishop Cranley

The ceremonial mitre of the Archbishop Cranley, 1407.

"The deacon's robe, in the Roman Catholic Church. the most ancient form of the dalmatic is exhibited in the annexed wood-cut, after an early Christian painting on the walls of catacombs at Rmb. It was originally of linen, but it is now generally made of the same heavy silk as the Planeta, worn by the priest." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Dalmatic

"The deacon's robe, in the Roman Catholic Church. the most ancient form of the dalmatic is exhibited…

Catholic system of dragooning the French protesants after the revocation of the edict of the Nantes, under Louis XIV. Caption under illustration: " When one party of these tormentors were weary, they were relieved by another, who practiced the same cruelties with fresh vigor."

Dragooning

Catholic system of dragooning the French protesants after the revocation of the edict of the Nantes,…

(1786-1860) Banker, politician and religious leader that became leader of the Catholic Apostolic Church.

Henry Drummond

(1786-1860) Banker, politician and religious leader that became leader of the Catholic Apostolic Church.

A fan used in Catholic liturgies to keep insects away from the bread and wine.

Liturgical Flabellum

A fan used in Catholic liturgies to keep insects away from the bread and wine.

A fan used in Catholic liturgies to keep insects away from the bread and wine.

Papal Flabellum

A fan used in Catholic liturgies to keep insects away from the bread and wine.

(1834-1921) American Catholic leader for over 50 years.

Cardinal Gibbons

(1834-1921) American Catholic leader for over 50 years.

The traditional mitre of Bishop Goodryke.

Mitre of Bishop Goodryke

The traditional mitre of Bishop Goodryke.

"By embracing the Catholic religion he made his way to the throne of France; and this monarch, Henry the Fourth, secured to his Protestant subjects, by the famous Edict of Nantes, in 1598, a full enjoyment of their civil rights and privileges, without persecution or molestation from any quarters." — Goodrich, 1844

Henry IV

"By embracing the Catholic religion he made his way to the throne of France; and this monarch, Henry…

James II of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) was King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Parliament of England deemed James to have abdicated on 11 December 1688. The Parliament of Scotland on 11 April 1689 declared him to have forfeited the throne. He was replaced not by his Catholic son, James Francis Edward, but by Mary II and William III. William and Mary became joint rulers in 1689. Mary was the eldest daughter of James and a Protestant. William was both his nephew and son-in-law. James II made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689.

James II of England

James II of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) was…

(1810-1903) Cardinal

Leo XIII

(1810-1903) Cardinal

The official seal of Sir Thomas Lucy, a magistrate who persecuted recusant Catholic families. The seal consists of three white luces interlaced.

Seal of Sir Thomas Lucy

The official seal of Sir Thomas Lucy, a magistrate who persecuted recusant Catholic families. The seal…

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death. The fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, she is remembered for restoring England to Roman Catholicism after succeeding her short-lived half brother, Edward VI, to the English throne. In the process, she had almost 300 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian Persecutions, earning her the sobriquet of "Bloody Mary". Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her successor and half-sister, Elizabeth I.

Mary I of England

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 19…

John Cardinal McCloskey, (March 10, 1810 - October 10, 1885) was an American cardinal, the fifth bishop (second archbishop) of the Roman Catholic diocese of New York.

Cardinal McCloskey

John Cardinal McCloskey, (March 10, 1810 - October 10, 1885) was an American cardinal, the fifth bishop…

An example of a modern archbishop's mitre.

An Archbishop's Mitre

An example of a modern archbishop's mitre.

The monstrance is a device used in the Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran Churches to display the consecrated Host. The Host is also known as the Sacramental Bread, the Lamb, or Communion Bread.

Monstrance

The monstrance is a device used in the Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran Churches…

The second longest-reigning elected Pope in Church history, serving from 1846 until his death in 1878. He defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.

Pope Pius IX

The second longest-reigning elected Pope in Church history, serving from 1846 until his death in 1878.…

An illustration of the reading of the decree in Vatican City on July 18th, 1870.

Reading of the Decree, July 18th

An illustration of the reading of the decree in Vatican City on July 18th, 1870.

Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. Consecrated as a bishop in 1607, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Church and the state, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Jules Cardinal Mazarin.

Richelieu

Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642),…

An illustration of the sarcophagus of Ferdinand and Isabella.

Sarcophagus of Ferdinand & Isabella

An illustration of the sarcophagus of Ferdinand and Isabella.

(1215-1270) French King who married Blanche of Castille. He is known for protecting the French clergy and strictly enforcing laws against blasphemy. He was canonized in1297.

St. Louis

(1215-1270) French King who married Blanche of Castille. He is known for protecting the French clergy…

"St. Patrick appears to have been a native of Boulogne, in France, and to have been born about the year 387, A.D. In his sixteenth year, he was made captive in a marauding expedition, conducted by Nial of the Nine Hostages." — Goodrich, 1844

St. Patrick

"St. Patrick appears to have been a native of Boulogne, in France, and to have been born about the year…

A portrait of the Vatican in Italy.

The Vatican

A portrait of the Vatican in Italy.