"Half-section of the battleship 'Rhode Island'"—Finley, 1917

Half-section of a battleship

"Half-section of the battleship 'Rhode Island'"—Finley, 1917

A primitive device of fire-brick, shaped like a beehive. It is simply filled with coal, part of which is allowed to burn with a limited supply of air.

Beehive Oven

A primitive device of fire-brick, shaped like a beehive. It is simply filled with coal, part of which…

The coal-fields of the United States are the richest in the world. Immense deposits occur in the eastern, central, and western sections of the country.

Coal Mine

The coal-fields of the United States are the richest in the world. Immense deposits occur in the eastern,…

Circulation of fresh air was critical in coal mining. In spite of passages created to control this, ther were always side rooms through which no circulation could be effected. These areas were where explosive "fire-damp", or light carbide of hydrogen, evolved spontaneously from the coal, and often caused fatal accidents to the miners.

Explosion in a Coal Mine

Circulation of fresh air was critical in coal mining. In spite of passages created to control this,…

An illustration of a decorative coal scuttle. A coal scuttle, sometimes spelled coalscuttle and also called a hod, is a bucket-like container for holding a small, intermediate supply of coal convenient to an indoor coal-fired stove or heater. It is usually made of metal and shaped like a vertical cylinder or truncated cone, with the open top slanted for pouring coal on a fire. It may have one or two handles. Homes that don't use coal sometimes use a coal scuttle decoratively.

Coal Scuttle

An illustration of a decorative coal scuttle. A coal scuttle, sometimes spelled coalscuttle and also…

An illustration of an automatic coal weighing machine.

Automatic Coal Weighing Machine

An illustration of an automatic coal weighing machine.

An illustration of an automatic coal weighing machine.

Automatic Coal Weighing Machine

An illustration of an automatic coal weighing machine.

"This machine consists essentially of a horizontal piston and cylinder engine fixed upon a platform carried upon four wheels, which are coupled together by side rods, so that on motion being communicated by means of a mitre wheel in the hind axle, it can be moved forward by hand. On the forward end of the frame are two bosses forming the centres for a pair of bell cranks or bent levers places close to the ground, and facing in opposite directions, either one of which can be connected with the piston rod. The outer arm of each lever carries a square socket, into which is fixed the pick, which has two cutting heads, one placed a little in front of the other so as to cut to the whole depth at one operation." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Coal-cutting Machine

"This machine consists essentially of a horizontal piston and cylinder engine fixed upon a platform…

"Coal-gas was first used as a lighthouse illuminant at Salvore, near Trieste, in 1817. For many years it has been used in the harbour lights of Great Britain when in the neighborhood of gas-works. Mr. J. R. Wigham has designed a compound or crecus burner consisting of a group of twenty-eight vertical tubes, each carrying an ordinary double fish-tail burner, and the ignited gases issuing from all these jets unite into one large flame." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Coal-gas

"Coal-gas was first used as a lighthouse illuminant at Salvore, near Trieste, in 1817. For many years…

"Coal-gas was first used as a lighthouse illuminant at Salvore, near Trieste, in 1817. For many years it has been used in the harbour lights of Great Britain when in the neighborhood of gas-works. Mr. J. R. Wigham has designed a compound or crecus burner consisting of a group of twenty-eight vertical tubes, each carrying an ordinary double fish-tail burner, and the ignited gases issuing from all these jets unite into one large flame." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Coal-gas

"Coal-gas was first used as a lighthouse illuminant at Salvore, near Trieste, in 1817. For many years…

A utensil for holding coal.

Coal-scuttle

A utensil for holding coal.

"A large species, weighing from ten to thirty pounds. It swims rapidly, and at no great depth." — Goodrich, 1859

Coalfish

"A large species, weighing from ten to thirty pounds. It swims rapidly, and at no great depth." —…

"General arrangement of Apron Conveyor for loading vessels, pans are 48 inches wide, 12 inches pitch, attached to chains working over sprockets at 24 fee centers. Capacity of conveyor is about 250 tons of coal per hour, material being received from a 42 inch M. & G. belt conveyor. The Apron Conveyor will work at any angle, the outer end being raised or lowered to suit vessel." -Meese, 1913

Apron Pan Conveyor

"General arrangement of Apron Conveyor for loading vessels, pans are 48 inches wide, 12 inches pitch,…

"A peculiar furnace, known as Ferrie's self-coking furnace after the name of its inventor, in which raw coal is employed, has been used at the Monkland Iron Works and elsewhere during the last few years. On the top of an ordinary furnace of about 53 feet in height and 7000 cubic feet capacity were erected four chambers or retorts about 20 feet in depth, each having a capacity of 500 cubic feet; external flues, in which a portion of the waste gases were burnt, served to heat these chambers in such a way as to coke the raw coal." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Ferrie's Furnace

"A peculiar furnace, known as Ferrie's self-coking furnace after the name of its inventor, in which…

Gas-work, used to extract gas from coal.

Gas-work

Gas-work, used to extract gas from coal.

The stove grate is used to hold fire or coal while cooking.

Stove Grate

The stove grate is used to hold fire or coal while cooking.

The goal of coal mining is to economically remove coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, and since the 1880s is widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production.

Mining Machine

The goal of coal mining is to economically remove coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy…

An illustration of a man sitting in a coal mine shaft with a shovel in hand.

Miner

An illustration of a man sitting in a coal mine shaft with a shovel in hand.

Older methods of mining often included the necessity of the miner lying in a rigidly plane position. Old manner of work was done by hand.

Method of Mining

Older methods of mining often included the necessity of the miner lying in a rigidly plane position.…

A section of the Paleozoic rocks found in the Mississppi basin illustrating the periods and ages.

Paleozoic Rocks

A section of the Paleozoic rocks found in the Mississppi basin illustrating the periods and ages.

Sharp implement used for removing materials like coal.

Coal Pick

Sharp implement used for removing materials like coal.

An illustration of mine train carts loaded with coal.

Coal Train

An illustration of mine train carts loaded with coal.

"The chief use of carbon monoxide is in water gas. This is produced by the reduction of steam by heated coal." -Brownlee 1907

Water Gas Production

"The chief use of carbon monoxide is in water gas. This is produced by the reduction of steam by heated…