A scene from ancient Egypt, with the pyramids in the background.

Pyramids scene

A scene from ancient Egypt, with the pyramids in the background.

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic depicting Ramesses II returning in triumph from Syria.

Ramesses II Returning From Syria

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic depicting Ramesses II returning in triumph from Syria.

Ramesses III as Osiris, between the goddesses Nephthys and Isis.

Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III

Ramesses III as Osiris, between the goddesses Nephthys and Isis.

"Ramses II was a powerful sovereign, called Sesostris by the Greeks, identified by many with the Pharaoh who oppressed the children of Israel."—Colby, 1899

Ramses II

"Ramses II was a powerful sovereign, called Sesostris by the Greeks, identified by many with the Pharaoh…

"The mummy was discovered in 1881, in an underground chamber near the site of Thebes. With it were the coffins and bodies of more than a score of royal personages. They had all been taken from their tombs and placed in the vault to conceal them from grave-robbers. Ramses II was over ninety years of age at the time of his death. In spite of the somewhat grotesque disguise of mummification, the face of this famous Pharaoh still wears an aspect of majesty and pride."—Webster, 1913

Head of Mummy of Ramses II

"The mummy was discovered in 1881, in an underground chamber near the site of Thebes. With it were the…

Soldiers of the body guard of Ramses II.

Ramses Soldiers

Soldiers of the body guard of Ramses II.

Also known as Ramses II. A profile portrait of Ramses the Great with carvings behind his head. He is often regarded as one of the most powerful pharaohs throughout history.

Ramses the Great

Also known as Ramses II. A profile portrait of Ramses the Great with carvings behind his head. He is…

"Reproduction of sculpture from a tomb in Thebes, showing preparation of leather cords by process similar to rope making." -Hill, 1921

Egyptian Rope Making

"Reproduction of sculpture from a tomb in Thebes, showing preparation of leather cords by process similar…

"In 1799, the Rosetta Stone was found and gave the first key to the reading of hieroglyphics. On this stone the same inscription was given in three different sets of characters, -the hieroglyphics, the demotic text (a briefer and more running form of hieroglyphics, commonly used in the papyri or manuscripts), and the Greek. By comparing the letters in certain Greek proper names with the letters of the same words in the Egyptian texts, the sounds for which the Egyptian characters stood were discovered. The Greek text, when translated, showed that the inscription was an ordinance of the priests decreeing certain honors to Ptolemy Epiphanes on the occasion of his coronation, 196 B.C. (Ptolemy Epiphanes was one of a line of Greek sovereigns who ruled over Egypt from the time of its conquest by Alexander in the fourth century, to the first century B.C.) It contains a command that the decree should be inscribed in the sacred letters (hieroglyphics), the letters of the country (demotic), and Greek letters, -and this for the convenience of the mixed population of Egypt under its Greek rulers. It was natural to conclude that the three texts were the same in substance, and accordingly earnest efforts were made to decipher the hieroglyphics by aid of the Greek. The first clew was obtained by noticing that certain groups of the hieroglyphic characters were inclosed in oval rings, and that these groups corresponded in relative position with certain proper names, such as Ptolemy, etc., in the Greek text. The following line presents a few of the characters with a group in the oval ring. (Each word is read from right to left)." —Colby, 1899

Rosetta Stone

"In 1799, the Rosetta Stone was found and gave the first key to the reading of hieroglyphics. On this…

"In 1799, the Rosetta Stone was found and gave the first key to the reading of hieroglyphics. On this stone the same inscription was given in three different sets of characters, -the hieroglyphics, the demotic text (a briefer and more running form of hieroglyphics, commonly used in the papyri or manuscripts), and the Greek. By comparing the letters in certain Greek proper names with the letters of the same words in the Egyptian texts, the sounds for which the Egyptian characters stood were discovered. This image represents Ptolemy or Ptolemaios." —Colby, 1899

Rosetta Stone

"In 1799, the Rosetta Stone was found and gave the first key to the reading of hieroglyphics. On this…

"In 1799, the Rosetta Stone was found and gave the first key to the reading of hieroglyphics. On this stone the same inscription was given in three different sets of characters, -the hieroglyphics, the demotic text (a briefer and more running form of hieroglyphics, commonly used in the papyri or manuscripts), and the Greek. By comparing the letters in certain Greek proper names with the letters of the same words in the Egyptian texts, the sounds for which the Egyptian characters stood were discovered. This image represents Cleopatra, or Kleopatra." —Colby, 1899

Rosetta Stone

"In 1799, the Rosetta Stone was found and gave the first key to the reading of hieroglyphics. On this…

Ancient Egyptian sandal.

Sandal

Ancient Egyptian sandal.

"The Ancient Sandal Maker as pictured on the wall of the ruined temples at Thebes, Egypt." -Bodmer, 1917

Egyptian Sandal Makers

"The Ancient Sandal Maker as pictured on the wall of the ruined temples at Thebes, Egypt." -Bodmer,…

An illustration of the restoration of a court in Sargon's palace at Khorsabad.

Sargon's Palace at Khorsabad

An illustration of the restoration of a court in Sargon's palace at Khorsabad.

The scarab is a carved piece of stone used as an amulet that represents a scarab beetle on one side and has other engravings on the bottom.

Scarab

The scarab is a carved piece of stone used as an amulet that represents a scarab beetle on one side…

"Scarab, a conventional beetle, which is a common motive in Egyptian art. The more oval form here seen still bears a closer affinity to some Egyptian scarab-borders of the Eighteenth Dynasty." -Whitney, 1911

Scarab

"Scarab, a conventional beetle, which is a common motive in Egyptian art. The more oval form here seen…

An ancient amulet of Egypt.

An Egyptian Scarab

An ancient amulet of Egypt.

The ancient Egyptians regarded the scarab as a symbol of immortality. 1. Stone scarab with wings, 2. The sacred beetle (<em>Scarabaeus sacer</em>), 3. Scarab from the British Museum, 4. Scarab seal from the tomb of Maket, 5, 6. Scarabs from monuments.

Egyptian scarabs

The ancient Egyptians regarded the scarab as a symbol of immortality. 1. Stone scarab with wings, 2.…

Egyptian scene with building and palm trees

Egyptian scene

Egyptian scene with building and palm trees

Scroll-Rosette Pattern

Scroll-Rosette Pattern

Scroll-Rosette Pattern

"Workmen are represented polishing and painting statues of men, sphinxes, and small figures; and two instances occur of large granite colossi, surrounded with scaffolding, on which men are engaged in polishing and chiselling the stone, the painter following the sculptor to color the hieroglypics which he has engraved on the back of the statue." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian sculptors

"Workmen are represented polishing and painting statues of men, sphinxes, and small figures; and two…

Sculpture on pedestal

Sculpture

Sculpture on pedestal

Sculpture on pedestal

Sculpture

Sculpture on pedestal

Front of Egyptian sculpture, figure in bronze.

Egyptian Sculpture

Front of Egyptian sculpture, figure in bronze.

Side of Egyptian sculpture, figure in bronze.

Egyptian Sculpture

Side of Egyptian sculpture, figure in bronze.

"Serapis or Hermes is sometimes represented as identical with Osiris, and sometimes as a distinct divinity, the ruler of Tartarus, and god of Medicine." &mdash;Bulfinch, 1897

Serapis

"Serapis or Hermes is sometimes represented as identical with Osiris, and sometimes as a distinct divinity,…

The portrait of Serapis, a deity in Egypt, who was also thought to be brought to Jerusalem and worshiped there as well.

Serapis

The portrait of Serapis, a deity in Egypt, who was also thought to be brought to Jerusalem and worshiped…

A greek vase of Serapis, an Egyptian god in Antiquity.

Greek Vase of Serapis

A greek vase of Serapis, an Egyptian god in Antiquity.

The Shedu is a celestial being from Mesopotamian mythology. He is a human above the waist and a bull below the waist. He also has the horns and the ears of a bull. The bull man helps people fight evil and chaos. He holds the gates of dawn open for the sun god Shamash and supports the sun disc. He is often shown on Cylinder Seals. It appears frequently in Mesopotamian art, sometimes with wings. Statues of the bull-man were often used as gatekeepers.

Shedu

The Shedu is a celestial being from Mesopotamian mythology. He is a human above the waist and a bull…

Shishak, king of Egypt.

Shishak

Shishak, king of Egypt.

"The Egyptian shops exhibited many curious scenes. Poulters suspended geese and other birds from a pole in front of the shop, which, at the same time, supported an awning to shade them from the sun." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian shop

"The Egyptian shops exhibited many curious scenes. Poulters suspended geese and other birds from a pole…

An illustration of a hieroglyphic depicting the siege of a city showing the use of a battering ram.

Siege of a City with Battering Ram

An illustration of a hieroglyphic depicting the siege of a city showing the use of a battering ram.

A sacred instrument in ancient Egypt used in dances and religious ceremonies.

Sistrum

A sacred instrument in ancient Egypt used in dances and religious ceremonies.

"Egyptian Sowing. The people were mainly agricultural, but employed rude methods of cultivation. In spite of this, the remarkably fertile soil yielded an abundance of produce, and Egypt was known as the granary of the world."&mdash;Colby, 1899

Sowing

"Egyptian Sowing. The people were mainly agricultural, but employed rude methods of cultivation. In…

"Sphinx is a Greek word signifying 'strangler,' applied to certain symbolical forms of Egyptian origin, having the body of a lion, a human or an animal head, and two wings. Various other combinations of animal forms have been called by this name, though they are rather griffins or chim&aelig;ras. Human-headed sphinxes have been called andro-sphinxes; that with the head of a ram, a criosphinx; and that with a hawk's head, a hieracosphinx. The form when complete had the wings added at the sides; but these are of a later period and seem to have originated with the Babylonians or Assyrians. In Egypt the sphinx also occurs as the symbolical form of the monarch considered as a conqueror, the head of the reigning king being placed on a loin's body, the face bearded, and the usual head dress. Thus used, the sphinx was generally male; but in the case of female rulers that figure has a female head and the body of a lioness. The most remarkable sphinx is the Great Sphinx at Gizeh (Giza), a colossal form hewn out of the natural rock, and lying about a quarter of a mile S.E. of the Great Pyramid. It is sculptured out of a spur of the rock itself, to which masonry has been added in certain places to complete the shape, and it measures 172 feet 6 inches long by 56 feet high."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sphinx

"Sphinx is a Greek word signifying 'strangler,' applied to certain symbolical forms of Egyptian origin,…

"Egyptian Sphinx."&mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Sphinx

"Egyptian Sphinx."—D'Anvers, 1895

A Sphinx is a zoomorphic mythological figure which is depicted as a recumbent lion with a human head.

Sphinx

A Sphinx is a zoomorphic mythological figure which is depicted as a recumbent lion with a human head.

A statue built on the Giza Plateau in Giza, Egypt, consisting of a lion with a human head. The Sphinx is believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians.

The Great Sphnix

A statue built on the Giza Plateau in Giza, Egypt, consisting of a lion with a human head. The Sphinx…

"This colossal figure, human-headed and lion-bodied, is hewn from the natural rock. The body is about 150 feet long, the paws 50 feet, the head 30 feet. The height from the base of the top of the head is 70 feet. Except for its head and shoulders, the figure has been buried for centuries in the desert sand. The eyes, nose, and beard have been mutilated by the Arabs. The face is probably that of one of the pyramid kings."&mdash;Webster, 1913

The Great Sphinx

"This colossal figure, human-headed and lion-bodied, is hewn from the natural rock. The body is about…

Spiral all-over pattern.

Spiral All-over Pattern

Spiral all-over pattern.

Highly decorative carved wooden spoon.

Carved Wooden Spoon

Highly decorative carved wooden spoon.

An Egyptian carved wooden spoon with cover.

Carved Wooden Spoon with Cover

An Egyptian carved wooden spoon with cover.

Carved wood perfume spoon.

Perfume Spoon

Carved wood perfume spoon.

An Egyptian sun.

Sun

An Egyptian sun.

A series of correspondence on clay tablets between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru.

The Amarna Tablet

A series of correspondence on clay tablets between the Egyptian administration and its representatives…

A profile view of Queen Tai, the wife of Amenophis III, pharaoh of Egypt.

Queen Tai

A profile view of Queen Tai, the wife of Amenophis III, pharaoh of Egypt.

The Battle of Tel-el-Kebir happened on September 13, 1882 in the Suez Canal area of Egypt, between the British and Egyptians. This scene is of the Highland Brigade storming the trenches at Tel-el-Kebir.

Battle of Tel al-kebir

The Battle of Tel-el-Kebir happened on September 13, 1882 in the Suez Canal area of Egypt, between the…

Column located in the Temple of Denderah, with masks of Hathor, an Egyptian sky goddess of love and joy, adorning the top.

Column from the Temple of Denderah, with Hathor Masks, Time of Cesar

Column located in the Temple of Denderah, with masks of Hathor, an Egyptian sky goddess of love and…

Temple of Isis at Philae.

Temple of Isis

Temple of Isis at Philae.

"Rock-cut temple at Ipsambul, on the Nile." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Egyptian temple

"Rock-cut temple at Ipsambul, on the Nile." —D'Anvers, 1895

An Ancient Egyptian temple complex founded in 1400 B.C.E.

Luxor Temple

An Ancient Egyptian temple complex founded in 1400 B.C.E.

A column depicting carvings and images of life in Thebes.

Column from Thebes

A column depicting carvings and images of life in Thebes.

The city of Thebes was a major city during the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. Portrays the wreckage of the city, with many buildings and pillars eroded.

Ruins of Thebes

The city of Thebes was a major city during the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. Portrays the wreckage of the city,…

Egyptian god Thoth

Thoth

Egyptian god Thoth

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Tomb Ceiling

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Tomb Ceiling

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Tomb Ceiling

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Tomb Ceiling

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Tomb Ceiling

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.

Tomb Ceiling

Painted all-over design from an Egyptian tomb ceiling.