"Suppose our volume of hydrogen to unite with the volume of chlorine; if one particle of hydrogen combines with one particle of chlorine, it is evident that we should have four pairs; that is four particles of hydrogen chloride. These four particles of hydrogen chloride would occupy the same volume as four particles of hydrogen, or of chlorine, since dqual numbers of particles of gases occupy equal spaces. We should then expect one volume of hydrogen chloride to be formed." -Brownlee 1907

Combinational Volume

"Suppose our volume of hydrogen to unite with the volume of chlorine; if one particle of hydrogen combines…

"When one volume of hydrogen actually unites with one volume of chlorine, two volumes and not one volume of hydrogen chloride result. the volume of the acid is twice that of the hydrogen. Each of these two volumes must, according to Avagadro's hypothesis, contain four particles of the acid, or eight in all, so that in the eight particles of the acid there must be eight particles of hydrogen and eight particles of chlorine." -Brownlee 1907

Combinational Volume

"When one volume of hydrogen actually unites with one volume of chlorine, two volumes and not one volume…

"Metallic cone and condenser to cool water from burning hydrogen." -Brownlee 1907

Condenser

"Metallic cone and condenser to cool water from burning hydrogen." -Brownlee 1907

"If the two wires from a battery be placed in pure water, it will be foud tat practically no current passes...If a small quantity of sulphuric acid is added to the water, the solution is a good conductor. During the passage of current, bubbles form at the ends of the wires: at the positive electrode (anode)...oxygen appear[s]; at the negative electrode (cathode) there is a rapid evolution of hydrogen." -Brownlee 1907

Electrolysis

"If the two wires from a battery be placed in pure water, it will be foud tat practically no current…

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the glue (either animal bone or hide) is soaked in a milk of lime (or in some cases, Hydrochloric or Sulfurous acid) to purify and loosen particles.

First Stage in Glue Manufacturing

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the…

"Produces a jet of hydrogen." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Hydrogen Jet Apparatus

"Produces a jet of hydrogen." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

This illustration shows pure hydrogen being collected by passing electricity through a dilute acid.

Hydrogen

This illustration shows pure hydrogen being collected by passing electricity through a dilute acid.

This illustration shows a beaker full of sulphuric acid and a stick of zinc, giving off hydrogen.

Hydrogen

This illustration shows a beaker full of sulphuric acid and a stick of zinc, giving off hydrogen.

Apparatus used to generate hydrogen.

Hydrogen Generator

Apparatus used to generate hydrogen.

This illustration shows a test to show the proportions of weight between hydrogen and oxygen.

Hydrogen Weight

This illustration shows a test to show the proportions of weight between hydrogen and oxygen.

"A labratory liquid air machine used by Thomson and Joule used to cool hydrogen from a gaseous state to a liquid state." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Liquid Air Machine

"A labratory liquid air machine used by Thomson and Joule used to cool hydrogen from a gaseous state…

This illustration shows the proportions of volume in which hydrogen and oxygen combine by introducing the two gases into a tube, filled with mercury and inverted within a cylinder of mercury.

Mercury Tube

This illustration shows the proportions of volume in which hydrogen and oxygen combine by introducing…

Picture represents clay retorts used in the distillation of phosphorus at high temperatures, with phosphorus, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide being produced.

Phosphorus Distillation

Picture represents clay retorts used in the distillation of phosphorus at high temperatures, with phosphorus,…