"The large driving cone J is hollow, the smaller or driven one convex. The latter presses, when desired, against the ineer surface of the former; its speed depends upon its position with regard to the axis of the driver. When its axis is in line with that of the driver, it has the same speed; the further it is drawn laterally therefrom, the greater the speed." —Grimshaw, 1902

Friction Coupling for Various Speed Adjustment

"The large driving cone J is hollow, the smaller or driven one convex. The latter presses, when desired,…

The "hammerhead", or giant cantilever, crane is a fixed-jib crane consisting of a steel-braced tower on which revolves a large, horizontal, double cantilever; the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the lifting trolley, the jib is extended backwards in order to form a support for the machinery and counter-balancing weight. In addition to the motions of lifting and revolving, there is provided a so-called "racking" motion, by which the lifting trolley, with the load suspended, can be moved in and out along the jib without altering the level of the load. Such horizontal movement of the load is a marked feature of later crane design. These cranes are generally constructed in large sizes, up to 350 tons.

Hammerhead Crane

The "hammerhead", or giant cantilever, crane is a fixed-jib crane consisting of a steel-braced tower…

"The cream separator is a machine for separating the cream from the milk. It does the work much better and much more quickly than it can be done by allowing the cream to rise in pans or in cans." — Goff, 1904

Cream Separator

"The cream separator is a machine for separating the cream from the milk. It does the work much better…

This illustration shows a cross mill and the sieves used to crush and filter bones in glue manufacturing.

Cross Mill and Sieves (Glue)

This illustration shows a cross mill and the sieves used to crush and filter bones in glue manufacturing.

"... a farmer with a crowbar, as shown, can move a rock which with his hands alone he could not stir." —Quackenbos 1859

Crowbar and Stone

"... a farmer with a crowbar, as shown, can move a rock which with his hands alone he could not stir."…

"Rollers of cube-cutting machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cube-cutting

"Rollers of cube-cutting machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

This machine was used to aerate the soil before planting seeds.

Mifflin Cultivator

This machine was used to aerate the soil before planting seeds.

This straw cutter features a reciprocating saw to facilitate the cutting process.

Straw Cutter

This straw cutter features a reciprocating saw to facilitate the cutting process.

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution of Potassuim Cyanide (KCN), containing 0.05 to 0.3 percent KCN (or its equivalent, Sodium Cyanide, NaCN) which is allowed to remain for twelve to twenty-four hours to dissolve the gold.

Cyanide Leaching Tank (Gold Extraction)

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution…

Darlington's Rock Drill

Darlington Drill

Darlington's Rock Drill

Darlington's rock drill

Darlington Drill

Darlington's rock drill

"Decorticator for ramie, jute, hemp, flax, and other textiles in green stalks. The machine is quadruple in its action. It consists in four feeders and four cleaners, inside of which revolves, horizontally, a large cogged wheel acting as a circular carrier. It brings the crushed plant in, and draws from it, the revolving cleaners, as follows: A, crushing rollers, through which the green stalks are passed, and placed on the rim of the large cogged wheel or circular carrier. B,rim of the carrier, on which hangs the flattened plant coming from the rollers. C, revolving cleaners, furnished with knives attracting the plant while it is drawn by the circular motion of the carrier. D, small cog-wheels in contact with the large wheels, and keeping the plant under pressure. F, projecting bar to direct the fiber into the cleaners. G, opening to take off the cleaned fiber." -Watts, 1874

Decorticator

"Decorticator for ramie, jute, hemp, flax, and other textiles in green stalks. The machine is quadruple…

A fertilizer distributor is an agricultural implement used to easily fertilize large quantities of soil.

Fertilizer Distributor

A fertilizer distributor is an agricultural implement used to easily fertilize large quantities of soil.

Fertilizers are roughly broken up between organic and inorganic fertilizer, with the main difference between the two being sourcing, and not necessarily differences in nutrient content.Broadcast seeders/spreaders can be roughly divided into three groups. The smallest of the broadcast seeders/spreaders can be carried or pushed while spreading seed or fertilizer.

One Wheel Fertilizer Distributor

Fertilizers are roughly broken up between organic and inorganic fertilizer, with the main difference…

"Dormoy's rabble differs from others of this class in being worked by rotation like a hair-brushing machine; the tool being made to revolve very rapidly (300 to 500 turns per minute for white iron and 800 to 1000 for grey pig) gives the metal such an impulse that it gyrates horizontally round the bed, continually renewing the surface in contact with the atmosphere; this is further aided, by making the end of the rabble to carry a disk, which is replaced by a short twisted point when the metal comes to nature." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Dormoy's Rabble

"Dormoy's rabble differs from others of this class in being worked by rotation like a hair-brushing…

"Dormoy's rabble differs from others of this class in being worked by rotation like a hair-brushing machine; the tool being made to revolve very rapidly (300 to 500 turns per minute for white iron and 800 to 1000 for grey pig) gives the metal such an impulse that it gyrates horizontally round the bed, continually renewing the surface in contact with the atmosphere; this is further aided, by making the end of the rabble to carry a disk, which is replaced by a short twisted point when the metal comes to nature." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Dormoy's Rabble

"Dormoy's rabble differs from others of this class in being worked by rotation like a hair-brushing…

"A transverse section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley, 1917

Transverse section of a double-column hammer

"A transverse section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley,…

"A section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, fitted with a valve v provided with three pistons."—Finley, 1917

Valve casing of a double-column hammer

"A section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, fitted with a valve v provided with three…

"A vertical section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley, 1917

Vertical section of a double-hammer column

"A vertical section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley,…

"Drawing Frame." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Drawing Frame

"Drawing Frame." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"A machine used for clearing out or deepening the channels of rivers or harbors. Dredging-machines are variously constructed, the simplest being like the oyster-dredge described above, only having a perforated cowhide bag instead of the chain-net, and a stronger 'spoon' or iron mouth to the bag." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Dredge Machine

"A machine used for clearing out or deepening the channels of rivers or harbors. Dredging-machines are…

"A drill to which a steady momentum is imparted by means of a fly-wheel having a reciprocating motion like that of the balance-wheel of a watch." -Whitney, 1911

Fly Drill

"A drill to which a steady momentum is imparted by means of a fly-wheel having a reciprocating motion…

"An ordinary vertical drilling machine, one of comparatively small size and single-geared having been chosen rather than a larger example with greater complication. When once properly started, this machine is self-acting, but for each hole the work has to be adjusted by hand so as to bring the required portion exactly under the drill spindle, and the small size of the table prevents its being at any great distance from the edge." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Drilling Machine

"An ordinary vertical drilling machine, one of comparatively small size and single-geared having been…

"In machinery, a drum of adjustable diameter used with a belt to effect changes as desired in the speed of machinery." -Whitney, 1911

Expansion Drum

"In machinery, a drum of adjustable diameter used with a belt to effect changes as desired in the speed…

Mather and Platt's Horizontal Drying Machine

Drying Machine

Mather and Platt's Horizontal Drying Machine

Diagram showing the Horizontal Drying Machine threaded with cloth

Drying Machine Diagram

Diagram showing the Horizontal Drying Machine threaded with cloth

Diagram showing the Horizontal Drying Machine threaded with cloth

Drying Machine Diagram

Diagram showing the Horizontal Drying Machine threaded with cloth

"A shaft runs through the machine from end to end, carrying a pulley, P, at one end, a commutator, c, at the other end, and a wheel armature, R, at the middle. The armature carries eight or more helices of insulated wire, H H, connected in pairs. As the shaft is turned by the action of the belt upon the pulley, the armature and the commutator are turned with it." — Avery, 1895

Brush dynamo

"A shaft runs through the machine from end to end, carrying a pulley, P, at one end, a commutator, c,…

A dynamometer or "dyno" for short, is a machine used to measure torque and rotational speed (rpm) from which power produced by an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover can be calculated.

Dynamometer

A dynamometer or "dyno" for short, is a machine used to measure torque and rotational speed (rpm) from…

This is a timepiece that shows the time of the day, using a small electric motor

Secondary Electric Clock

This is a timepiece that shows the time of the day, using a small electric motor

"The electrical machine most usually employed consists of a large circular plate of glass, mounted upon a metallic axis, and supported upon pillars fixed to a secure base, so that the plate can, by means of a handle, w, be turned with ease. Upon the supports of the glass, and fixed so as to press easily but uniformly on the plate, are four rubbers, marked r r r r in the figure; and flaps of silk, s s, oiled on one side, are attached to these, and secured to fixed supports by several silk cords. When the machine is put in motion, these flaps of silk are drawn tightly against the glass, and thus the friction is increased, and electricity excited. The points p p collect the electricity from the glass, and convey it to the conductor, c, which is supported by the glass rod g." —Wells, 1857

Electrical Machine

"The electrical machine most usually employed consists of a large circular plate of glass, mounted upon…

"A form of an electrical machine. S being the glass cylinder turning on an axis, Y the conductor, F the rubber, A A supports." —Wells, 1857

Electrical Machine

"A form of an electrical machine. S being the glass cylinder turning on an axis, Y the conductor, F…

The first reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius, who reported that Archimedes built his first elevator, probably in 236 BC. In some literary sources of later historical periods, elevators were mentioned as cabs on a hemp rope and powered by hand or by animals. It is supposed that elevators of this type were installed in the Sinai monastery of Egypt.

Elevating Apparatus

The first reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius, who reported that…

A bucket elevator, also called a grain leg, is a mechanism for hauling flowable bulk materials (most often grain or fertilizer) vertically.

Bucket Elevator

A bucket elevator, also called a grain leg, is a mechanism for hauling flowable bulk materials (most…

"General arrangement of roping for gearless traction elevator installation." -Bodmer, 1917

Gearless Traction Elevator

"General arrangement of roping for gearless traction elevator installation." -Bodmer, 1917

An illustration of sections of a grain elevator.

Grain Elevator

An illustration of sections of a grain elevator.

An illustration of the lower terminal of a mineral elevator.

Mineral Elevator (Lower Terminal)

An illustration of the lower terminal of a mineral elevator.

An illustration of the upper terminal of a mineral elevator.

Mineral Elevator (Upper Terminal)

An illustration of the upper terminal of a mineral elevator.

Motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

Explosive Engine

Motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

Gas Engine

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

Internal Combustion Engine

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

Motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

Internal Combustion Engine

Motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

A heat engine in which combustion occurs inside the engine rather than in a separate furnace; heat expands a gas that either moves a piston or turns a gas turbine

Internal Combustion Engine

A heat engine in which combustion occurs inside the engine rather than in a separate furnace; heat expands…

"A portable engine and feed grinder that saves frequent trips to the Grist Mill."—The Federal Digest, 1921

Portable Engine

"A portable engine and feed grinder that saves frequent trips to the Grist Mill."—The Federal…

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive force of steam as a motive power. It is a real heat-engine, transforming heat into mechanical energy." — Avery, 1895

Steam engine

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive…

An illustration of a rotary steam engine. The steam turbine system was invented by Branca in 1629. Steam spins the turbine to turn a series of gears, generating power.

Steam Rotary Engine

An illustration of a rotary steam engine. The steam turbine system was invented by Branca in 1629. Steam…

A wheel or ring fixed to a framework, toothed on its inner side, and having in gear with it another toothed wheel of half the diameter of the first, fitted so as to revolve around the center of the latter.

Epicycloidal Wheel

A wheel or ring fixed to a framework, toothed on its inner side, and having in gear with it another…

"A crank which regulates the motion of the chief or escapement wheel of a train of clock-work worked by the pendulum or spring." — Williams, 1889

Escapement

"A crank which regulates the motion of the chief or escapement wheel of a train of clock-work worked…

"A horse- or steam-power machine for digging, moving, or transporting loose gravel, sand, or soil." -Whitney, 1911

Excavator

"A horse- or steam-power machine for digging, moving, or transporting loose gravel, sand, or soil."…

Any of various devices consisting essentially of a series of radiating vanes or blades attached to and revolving with a central hublike portion to produce a current of air: ceiling fan; wall fan.

Vane Fan

Any of various devices consisting essentially of a series of radiating vanes or blades attached to and…

A bin or boxlike device from which farm animals may eat, esp. such a device designed to allow a number of chickens to feed simultaneously or to release a specific amount of feed at regular intervals.

Combination Fountain Feeder

A bin or boxlike device from which farm animals may eat, esp. such a device designed to allow a number…

A person or thing that supplies food or feeds something.

Poultry Feeder

A person or thing that supplies food or feeds something.

A bin or boxlike device from which farm animals may eat, esp. such a device designed to allow a number of chickens to feed simultaneously or to release a specific amount of feed at regular intervals.

Poultry Drink Feeder

A bin or boxlike device from which farm animals may eat, esp. such a device designed to allow a number…

Felt Comptometer computing machine.

Felt Comptometer

Felt Comptometer computing machine.

"9-poounder Field Gun Carriage (elevation )." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Field Gun Carriage

"9-poounder Field Gun Carriage (elevation )." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"9-pounder Field Gun Carriage (plan)." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Field Gun Carriage

"9-pounder Field Gun Carriage (plan)." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

An early fire engine.

Fire Engine

An early fire engine.

"An automatic device employed with low-pressure steam-heating furnaces to maintain a uniform temperature." -Whitney, 1911

Fire Regulator

"An automatic device employed with low-pressure steam-heating furnaces to maintain a uniform temperature."…

"A lever is an inflexible bar freely movable about a fixed axis called the fulcrum. If the fulcrum is between the power and weight, the lever is of the first class." — Avery, 1895

First Class Lever

"A lever is an inflexible bar freely movable about a fixed axis called the fulcrum. If the fulcrum is…

Tredwell of Boston invented the first power press. The type is raised to meet the platen.

First Power Press

Tredwell of Boston invented the first power press. The type is raised to meet the platen.